Richard Melson

September 2006


G20 developing nations

The G20 (Group of 20, also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003. The group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, held in Cancún, Mexico from 10 September to 14 September 2003.

Its origins date back to June 2003, when foreign ministers from Brazil, India and South Africa signed a declaration known as the Brasilia Declaration, in which they stated that "major trading partners are still moved by protectionist concerns in their countries’ less competitive sectors [...] and emphasized how important it is that the results of the current round of trade negotiations provide especially for the reversal of protectionist policies and trade-distorting practices [...] Furthermore, Brazil, India and South Africa decided to articulate their initiatives of trade liberalization".

Nonetheless, the "official" appearance of the G-20 occurred as a response to a text released on 13 August 2003 by the European Communities (EC) and the United States (U.S.) with a common proposal on agriculture for the Cancún Ministerial. On 20 August 2003 a document signed by twenty countries and re-issued as a Cancún Ministerial document on 4 September proposed an alternative framework to that of the EC and the U.S. on agriculture for the Cancún Meeting. This document marked the establishment of the G-20. The original group of signatories of the 20 August 2003 document went through many changes, being known as such different names as the G-21 or the G-22. The title G-20 was finally chosen, in honor of the date of the group's establishment.

In trade negotiations, the group has pressed for an end to subsidies from industrialized nations to their farmers and opposed liberalization, albeit little changes are needed except implicit reforms in the governmental structures, of their own agricultural sectors.

The G-20 accounts for 65% of the world population, 72% of its farmers and and at least 2/3 of its agricultural output.

Since its creation, the group has had a fluctuating membership. Previous members have included: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Peru, and Turkey.

The core leadership of the G-20, known as the G4 bloc,

consists of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa.


External links

Retrieved from ""

The G4 bloc, consisting of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa, is the core leadership of the larger G20 trade bloc within the World Trade Organization. In 2003, Brazil, India and South Africa signed the Brasilia Declaration that would lead to the founding of the G20.

Developing Nations: blocs

September 16, 2006