Richard Melson

September 2006-09-29

South Bulletin No. 132

This issue of the South Bulletin focuses on the 14th Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) held in Havana, Cuba from 11- 16 September, 2006

South Bulletin 132

1 October 2006

In this Issue

‘Poverty the Result of Centuries of Colonialism’

"In this globalised world, poverty is the result of centuries of colonialism and neocolonialism and of an unjust and criminal international economic order, not of the supposed corruption and ineptitude of our governments, as they would have us believe." Cuba’s Vice-President Carlos Lage Dávila, believes that ‘more privatization, more deregulation and more free trade spell more inequality, more poverty and more marginalization.’

Revitalising NAM: Cuba Takes on Leadership from Malaysia

Malaysia led the Non-Aligned Movement since February 2003, making all-round efforts to revitalize the movement - making it more responsive, efficient and effective. As the outgoing chairman, the Prime Minister of Malaysia Abdullah Ahmad Badawi spoke of the contributions made during the last three years.

NAM: Protecting the Legacy of Past Achievements – Mbeki

South Africa ends its term as part of the Troika of the Non-Aligned Movement in favour of Egypt. The President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, said NAM is more than a mere geographical bonding of countries of the South. It is ‘a commitment to respect the history of our Movement.’

India Ready to Coordinate NAM Working Group on Energy Security

At the 14th Non-Aligned Summit in Havana, the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, suggested a number of initiatives that the Movement could take. These included the constitution of a high level group for West Asia, elaborating a NAM Initiative on Africa, and India’s readiness to coordinate a NAM Working Group on Energy Security.

Time to Set Up a Second South Commission – Chavez

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, has called for the setting up of the second South Commission, presided by President Fidel Castro of Cuba to present a strategy to reactivate South-South cooperation and the integration of the South.

‘NAM Will Have Decisive Influence on Human Challenges’

The documents and decisions adopted at the 14th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in Havana, Cuba, will enable the Movement to have a decisive influence in the debate and solution of the main challenges that face humanity and, in particular, the people of the South. NAM closing observations by Raúl Castro Ruz, President of Cuba.

Other articles:

Purposes, Principles and the Role of NAM

Nelson Mandela Memorial Lecture – II

First IBSA Summit Joint Declaration

South Centre News

Editorial - NAM: Strengthening South-South Supports

‘Poverty the Result of Centuries of Colonialism’

"In this globalised world, poverty is the result of centuries of colonialism and neocolonialism and of an unjust and criminal international economic order, not of the supposed corruption and ineptitude of our governments, as they would have us believe," said Carlos Lage Dávila, Cuba’s Vice-President addressing the Opening Session of the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries (NAM). "More privatization, more deregulation and more free trade spell more inequality, more poverty and more marginalization." Following are excerpts from his address.

"Plagued by wars and the threat of new wars, the world we live in becomes more unjust and unequal with each day that passes.

The end of the confrontation between East and West was not the beginning of the peace many dreamed of. What we have witnessed, instead, is the growing hegemony of a nation that resorts to economic and political pressures unscrupulously, that feels entitled to invade any country in the world to reach its objectives and which is leading the world we all live in to its own destruction.

A few examples suffice to reveal the absurdity and cruelty of the international order that has been imposed upon us today.

More than a million million dollars are allotted to military spending annually, while 11 million children die of preventable or curable diseases each year. Another million million dollars is spent on commercial advertising, at a time when 860 million human beings around the world do not know how to read or write.

Every year, wealthy countries spend 17 thousand million dollars to feed household pets and more than 800 million people go to sleep hungry each day.

Each year, Latin American countries spend no less than 20 thousand dollars on the education of each of the 200 thousand students who graduate from university and 20 % of the most outstanding graduates —240 thousand students— end up working or doing research work in rich nations, who offer them work conditions our countries are unable to guarantee. For this, we receive no compensation whatsoever.

Fossil fuel reserves are being depleted. The growth in the number of proven and provable oil and natural gas reserves is outpaced by consumption. The societies of wealthy countries have not been able to undertake profound and radical energy-saving programmes that would buy us the time needed to develop new technologies.

Our environment deteriorates as a result of the activities of an irrational society which encourages extreme forms of consumerism, a way of life rich countries have imposed on their own societies and on ours.

Unemployment, poverty, hunger and illnesses are foisted upon thousands of millions of people. A new category that of surplus humanity has been created by neoliberalism.

War and economic might are being used to impose a veritable dictatorship upon the world, while an intolerant and deceitful discourse aims to distort reality.

Democracy and human rights, today closer to pretexts than to objectives, cannot exist in a world that is increasingly unequal, where these words cannot even be read or understood by thousands of millions of people.

The concepts of limited sovereignty, humanitarian intervention, preventive war and regime change are fascist; they are not modern theories designed to defend freedom and combat terrorism. "Human safety" and "the responsibility to protect" are concepts which conceal the intention to encroach upon the sovereignty and do away with the independence of poor nations —never, of course, of powerful countries.

In this globalised world, poverty is the result of centuries of colonialism and neocolonialism and of an unjust and criminal international economic order, not of the supposed corruption and ineptitude of our governments, as they would have us believe. More privatization, more deregulation and more free trade spell more inequality, more poverty and more marginalization.

Drug trafficking and organized crime stem from the growing demand for drugs of the world’s richest societies. They are the result of a way of life which makes of consumption and money the only legitimate driving force of human beings. Drugs and crime proliferate as a result of this growing demand and not because police forces and armies are inadequate and we need to purchase more bullet-proof vehicles, go-fasts and sophisticated weapons for rich nations.

Terrorism is born of injustice, a lack of education and culture, of poverty and inequality, of the humiliation suffered by whole nations, of the contempt towards and the underestimation of belief systems, of arrogance, of abuse and of crimes. It is not a consequence of radical ideologies that must be swept off the face of the earth with bombs and missiles.

Hypocrisy and double standards are in plain sight in the discourse of the powerful.

The hegemonic superpower demands that those responsible for crimes anywhere in the world be tried in and even extradited to the United States; on the other hand, members of the US military, for equal or worse crimes, are to enjoy impunity —otherwise, no credits or economic aid are made available.

Walls are erected across borders and immigration police forces assembled, but not to prevent the entry of scientists, doctors, nurses, information experts and other highly qualified professionals and technicians into rich countries.

Powerful countries tout free trade but consider it essential to spend nearly one thousand million dollars in agricultural subsidies a day, 3 time what they devote to development assistance.

The world’s reserves are not flowing into our banks, but it would be sheer heresy to contradict the orders we receive: no barriers are to block the flow of capital and our money must go to finance the United States economic deficit.

Anti-personnel mines are to be eliminated, not chemical and nuclear weapons. No one else may possess them, or so says the one country that has used both on civilian populations.

This is the world the Washington Consensus has bequeathed us. This is the world neoliberalism has bequeathed us. This is the world transnational companies, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the government of the United States and powerful countries have bequeathed us. And they would perpetuate this economic and political world order, or disorder, which breeds inequalities and leads us to chaos, because it benefits a handful of nations, and not everyone in those nations.

Another world is possible and urgently needed, and wars are not needed to create it. If we grow in conscience, if we join forces, if we become determined to defend our rights with ideas and steadfastness, we can build such a world.

Our Movement is essential to the quest for a new system of international relations. We do not align ourselves to wars, to terrorism, to injustice, to inequality, to double standards. We align ourselves to peace and to justice.

We must fight for a world in which aggression and occupation by any country in search of material or geopolitical gains is unthinkable, in which acts of aggression of the kind the Lebanese people endure today or the atrocities committed by Israel in Palestine are not permitted.

We must fight against a world in which a sovereign nation is denied the use of nuclear energy for peaceful ends while another is aided in the accumulation of nuclear arsenals. We must fight for a new, fairer and more equal world economic order, in which the special and differentiated treatment of Third World countries is guaranteed.

Today’s international financial organizations have been discredited and are unable to understand and address our problems. These organizations must be abolished and new ones, which seek to do away with hunger and not the hungry, must take their place.

The United Nations must be reformed and transformed into a real instrument for cooperation and peace, an organization that can realize the guiding principles enshrined in its Charter. The Security Council must broaden its membership, modify its working methods, make its deliberations more transparent and eradicate the unjust and humiliating privilege of the veto.

We know these objectives are hard to reach, but the one way to reach them is by fighting for them. The end of colonialism, the defeat of fascism, the victory of Vietnam and the disappearance of apartheid were once impossible goals for many. The greatest pages of human history are those in which goals which seemed far-off dreams are reached.

These days in Havana will be days of work and optimism. As the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries becomes stronger, Fidel recovers.

We want to acknowledge the government of Malaysia for its work as Chairman of the Movement, to thank everyone for having participated, in spite of pressures and calamitous threats and for contributing with points of view and ideas that, concurring with ours or not, are aimed at creating a better world for our peoples.

Many of you have been here before. Others have come for the first time. In your limited free time, you will be afforded a glimpse at our reality and at the spirit of a people who, 47 years ago, decided to take command of its fate and build a just society where solidarity prevails, to face all risks, threats, aggressions and a blockade that is as criminal and long as it is ridiculous.

When the Soviet Union and European socialist block collapsed, we were practically alone, determined to hold on to our flag and to socialism. The government of the United States stepped up the blockade with the passing of new laws, amendments and counter-amendments; it undertook new terrorist actions and unleashed an unprecedented international diplomatic and media campaign against the Cuban revolution.

A morally decadent empire attacked our small island with all of its hatred.

The end of the revolution appeared inevitable, even in the eyes of many friends. However, the revolution was able to hold its ground, because it had an immense project of equity and wellbeing behind it.

The revolution was able to survive because of an even greater project of justice and dignity it had brought to fruition. Because the revolution never deceived the people, because truth and ethical imperatives were behind every action, because we defended unity like our most precious possession, because the siren-song of transition fell upon deaf ears here and we refused to accept that competition, money, vanity and egotism —and not honour and solidarity— are what move people.

We can say that, in the 1990s, the Cuban revolution lived its harshest and hardest years of its history and we can say that, today, we are seeing the most promising time of the revolution.

This may seem like a miracle, but it is not. It is the feat of an entire, self-sacrificing, heroic and stoic people, and it is on their behalf that I welcome you to the land of Martí and Fidel."

Revitalising NAM: Cuba Takes on Leadership from Malaysia

Malaysia led the Non-Aligned Movement since February 2003, making all-round efforts to revitalize the movement - making it more responsive, efficient and effective. As the outgoing chairman, the Prime Minister of Malaysia Abdullah Ahmad Badawi spoke of the contributions made during the last three years. "In a new world, with new realities, a dynamic NAM must be able to adapt itself to these changes, particularly in the context of the rapid process of globalization," he said. "It must modernise itself and not be stuck in a bygone era. It must be prepared to change without forsaking its fundamental principles or its quest for a more just, equitable and peaceful world." Following are extracts from his address on 15 September in Havana at the 14th NAM summit.

"It is my pleasant duty, this morning, as the Chair of the 13th NAM Summit to present to this 14th Summit of the Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement, a report on the activities carried out by NAM during the period of Malaysia’s Chairmanship from February 2003 to September 2006.

But first, let me, through the Acting President, covey my Delegation’s warmest greetings and felicitations to His Excellency President Fidel Castro. We wish him every best wishes for his good health and speedy full recovery. Although he is not here in this conference hall, he is very much in our hearts and minds at this important Summit.

As the full Report has already been circulated to Delegates, I shall only highlight the main activities and initiatives undertaken during Malaysia’s Chairmanship.

Malaysia, as Chair of the Movement, gave priority to the task of revitalizing NAM, a process that had been started by previous Chairs. The Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the Continuing Revitalisation of the Non-Aligned Movement that was adopted at the Kuala Lumpur Summit served as a useful roadmap for the Chair in its efforts towards making the Movement more efficient, effective and relevant.

Much of these efforts were focused on coordinating the positions of the Movement in the international fora, particularly in New York, but also in Geneva and the newly established NAM chapters in Vienna and The Hague. This had resulted in better and more effective coordination of the NAM positions at these centres and had enabled our Movement to respond to international developments affecting NAM in a more timely and cohesive fashion.

As usual, the NAM Coordinating Bureau (NAM CoB) in New York shouldered the major responsibility of coordinating the work of the Movement, particularly on issues relating to international peace and security (including peace-keeping), disarmament, international terrorism, human rights, reform and revitalisation of the United Nations, and development, among others. The NAM CoB played a particularly active role in contributing inputs to the 2005 World Summit during the 60th Session of the General Assembly, as well as in following up to the Summit Outcome document.

The NAM Chapters in Geneva, Vienna and The Hague had also effectively carried out their coordination work in their areas of responsibility, particularly, relating to human rights, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and chemical weapons, respectively.

Malaysia is gratified that the broad and intensive consultations that it had undertaken with Member States in each of the NAM chapters, had facilitated consensus and enabled the Movement to articulate common positions on the issues concerned.

Pursuant to the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on revitalisation, the Chair made more effective use of the mechanism of the NAM Troika, which met a number of times, mostly in New York but also in Paris, Putrajaya and Hermanus (Cape Town). These meetings, which, on a few occasions, were enlarged to include the Former Chairs of the Movement, had facilitated consensus building within the Movement. At the invitation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Troika had also visited Teheran to confer on the issue of Iran’s nuclear technology programme for peaceful purposes. The Troika also had annual consultations on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly sessions with the E.U. Troika within the framework of their common desire to strengthen the multilateral process.

The Chair also made efforts to strengthen cooperation with our sister grouping of the South, the G-77 and China, particularly through the mechanism of the Joint Coordinating Committee (JCC). Malaysia strongly believes in the usefulness of this mechanism which should be utilized more frequently so as to raise the level of co-operation and synergy between NAM and the G-77 and China.

In this regard, I welcome the recent trend of holding parallel or side meetings of the two groupings when one or the other meets to discuss important issues, such as those that took place in Doha and Putrajaya recently. This practice should be encouraged as it would contribute towards enhancing closer cooperation and synergy between NAM and G-77 and China and in formulating common strategies and approaches in dealing with the problems faced by the developing countries. Closer cooperation between the two bodies will ensure a more coordinated and effective approach in their dialogues with the developed countries.

The Chair had continued with efforts to promote contacts and interaction with other groups and organizations, such as the G-8. The Chair used the occasion of the G8 Summits to convey the positions of the Movement on issues of major concern to the developing countries, in the hope and expectation that they would be taken into consideration by the G-8 leaders before taking decisions that might have an impact on the South. The Chair believes that increased contacts and interaction with the G-8 should be further pursued and if possible be placed on a firmer footing, so that they could contribute towards better understanding and more harmonious relationships between the developed and developing countries.

Aside from the annual NAM Ministerial Meetings in New York on the margins of the UN General Assembly sessions and the meetings of the Troika, a number of important meetings were convened during the period. These include the 14th NAM Ministerial Conference in Durban, the Special Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Committee on Palestine in Putrajaya, the NAM Ministerial Meeting on the Advancement of Women, also in Putrajaya, the Sixth Conference of the Ministers of Information of the Non-Aligned Countries (COMINAC VI) in Kuala Lumpur, and the recent Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Coordinating Bureau in Putrajaya, to prepare for the 14th Summit.

Several new initiatives were taken. Following the ministerial meeting of the NAM Committee on Palestine, a NAM Ministerial delegation, led by Malaysia, established contacts with members of the International Quartet and the Permanent Members of the U.N Security Council to urge them to fulfill their responsibility in finding an early solution to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict including reinstating the "Road Map" for peace in the Middle East.

Pursuant to the decision of the Ministerial Meeting on Women, Malaysia recently established a NAM Institute on the Empowerment of Women (NIEW) in Kuala Lumpur, which has just concluded its first training course, with the participation of officials from a number of NAM Member countries. The Institute’s principal objective is to provide capacity building programmes, including training and research, in the field of women’s development and empowerment through a lifelong learning approach. I trust the establishment of the Institute would have the endorsement and support of this Summit, as it constitutes yet another concrete programme of cooperation, in a new area, to tap the creative energies of a vitally important segment of our populations, thereby giving new relevance and impetus to the Movement.

As agreed at COMINAC VI, Malaysia proceeded to transform the moribund Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) to the "NAM News Network" (NNN), under the management of the National News Agency of Malaysia (Bernama). It is hoped that the NNN, which is an internet-based news exchange and distribution arrangement, involving both news agencies and newspapers, would provide a more sustained and efficient flow of news and information among the Non-Aligned Countries while providing a much-needed balance to the news about our countries presented by other news networks. I commend the NNN for your endorsement and support, which would ensure the dissemination of news about the South by the South. This will serve to increase self-reliance and greater South-South co-operation in the communications field. We look forward to more national new agencies and newspapers of NAM member countries contributing to the NNN in the coming months.

With the encouragement of the Chair, a NAM Business Council was launched in 2004 to harness the contribution of the private sector of member countries, within the framework of South-South cooperation and the revitalization of the Movement. It is hoped that more efforts would be made in this area in order to realise its potential.

The Chair had also worked closely with civil society. An International Conference of Civil Society Organisations on "Peace in Palestine" was held in Putrajaya under the auspices of Peace Malaysia, a Malaysian non-governmental organisation, with the objective of mobilising NGOs to actively support the Palestinian cause.

Malaysia is privileged to have had the honour of leading the Movement for well over three years, since February 2003. We had made efforts to revitalise NAM and make it more responsive, efficient and effective to the best of our ability. As Chair we had made a number of modest contributions which we hope would be built on, along with other initiatives.

During Malaysia’s Chairmanship, four countries namely St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Timor Leste, the Commonwealth of Dominica, and Antigua and Barbuda joined as new members of our Movement. Today, I wish to welcome to the fold Haiti as well as St. Kitts and Nevis. We welcome them wholeheartedly and look forward to their active participation in the activities of NAM.

We are pleased that overall, the Movement has remained true to its core values and basic principles, and united on broad issues on its agenda. We are particularly gratified at the continued commitment to issues that are fundamental and dear to us, including that of Palestine, one of the most profound and heart-breaking tragedies of our time. We are united in our common support for the just cause of the Palestinian people and in our sympathy and solidarity for their appalling plight under Israeli occupation. For the sake of our credibility, we must be ready to express our support for, and solidarity with, our fellow NAM members that are under threat or are subjected to aggression, as was the case in Lebanon recently.

Clearly, NAM must feel justifiably proud to record some of its major achievements since its founding some forty-five years ago. We had successfully spear-headed the struggle against colonialism. We had contributed towards the dismantling of apartheid in South Africa. However, our work is far from done. Vestiges of colonialism still remain. Indeed, new forms of "colonialism" - more subtle but just as pernicious and exploitative than previously - have surfaced. Even apartheid-like policies and practices have raised their ugly heads in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Armed conflicts and wars still rage in many parts of the world, many of them, unfortunately, in NAM member countries. The threat of nuclear annihilation, with tens of thousands of nuclear weapons remaining in the arsenals of the nuclear-weapon states, remains undiminished. The world is also witnessing encroaching unilateralism and the steady erosion of international law and the Charter of the United Nations.

The fight against injustice, inequity, political and economic exploitation, trade disparities, big-power dominance, threat of weapons of mass destruction - particularly nuclear weapons - interference and aggression, violation of human rights, socio-economic backwardness, among others, remain on our agenda. NAM must also deal with other serious issues such as the threat of international terrorism.

All of these challenges require us to be vigilant and pro-active, to close ranks and to act in concert as a forum or caucus of developing countries in order to preserve and promote our collective interests. The further strengthening and revitalization of NAM is, therefore, a critically important objective that must continue to be vigorously pursued so as to ensure that our views and positions can be promoted more effectively in the global arena.

Towards this end, we need to maintain our unity of common purpose and enhance our cohesion and solidarity. We must maintain consistency of our positions in all international fora and resist efforts to split and weaken us as a Movement. We need to find new areas of common interest, programmes and activities in order to expand the scope of our relations and interaction, and strengthen our cooperation, for example, in socio-economic, trade and developmental issues, beyond our cooperation in the political realm.

In a new world, with new realities, a dynamic NAM must be able to adapt itself to these changes, particularly in the context of the rapid process of globalisation. It must modernise itself and not be stuck in a bygone era. It must be prepared to change without forsaking its fundamental principles or its quest for a more just, equitable and peaceful world. We need to maintain a balance, as always, between national interests and the collective interests of the Movement.

However, in continuing our struggle, we should not be misunderstood as being against any country or group of countries. NAM is only against injustice, inequity, oppression, selectivity or double standards and all the other negative, exploitative or coercive elements of inter-state relations that take advantage of weak and vulnerable states. We should continue to project to the global community that NAM is a positive force in international relations and is a reliable and constructive partner for peace and development.

NAM must develop new linkages and relationships with its partners in the developed world if it wishes to play a role that is commensurate with its size and population. NAM must adopt a more strategic approach on global issues in order to maximise its full potential.

Aside from the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement is one of the two largest inter-governmental bodies in the world. We are now 116 strong, and will be further augmented shortly by at least two more members. Our size is an asset as it provides us with a leverage or clout in our efforts to exert influence in the international arena.

However, we must also be mindful that our numbers could also turn out to be a liability if it makes us unwieldy, awkward and slow-moving, unable to respond quickly to the rapid changes taking place around the globe.

We cannot afford to be reactive or, worse still, static. We will have to learn to move nimbly, in spite of our size, in order to be an active player on the world stage. For this purpose, there needs to be some serious thinking on our role, strategies and approaches for the future. We can begin by taking a good look at our organisational structures, methodologies, and decision-making processes.

I trust that these issues would be fully addressed here at this Summit in Havana. In these efforts, it is important therefore that we extend our fullest co-operation and support to Cuba, our new Chairman.

It is with particular pleasure that Malaysia is handing over the leadership of the Movement to Cuba at this 14th NAM Summit, in full confidence of its ability to lead the Movement for the next three years. Its previous record as Chairman of the Movement and the brilliant statesmanship of its leader, President Fidel Castro Ruz, assure us that NAM will once again be in Cuba’s very capable hands. We are equally confident that the revitalisation of the Movement will continue expeditiously and be brought to a higher level under Cuba’s leadership.

I wish this Summit every success and to Cuba, our best wishes in its stewardship of the Movement. As a member of the Troika, Malaysia pledges its unfailing support for our new Chair in its efforts to bring about the further re-invigoration of the Movement that we all desire and look forward to.

In closing, may I take this opportunity to express my own and my Government’s sincere and profound thanks and appreciation to all the leaders, ministers and officials of the Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement for the solid cooperation and support extended to Malaysia during its chairmanship of NAM.

Finally, I would like to express, on behalf of my delegation, my profound thanks and gratitude to our host, the Government and people of Cuba, for the warm and generous hospitality, courtesies and facilities extended to us throughout this Summit."

NAM: Protecting the Legacy of Past Achievements – Mbeki

South Africa ends its term as part of the Troika of the Non-Aligned Movement in favour of Egypt. The President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, said NAM is more than a mere geographical bonding of countries of the South. It is ‘a commitment to respect the history of our Movement.’ Addressing the XIV NAM Summit in Havana on 14 September, President Mbeki said it is now more than ever necessary to be vigilant and protect the legacy of our past achievements in ridding ourselves of the legacy of foreign domination and third-world status. Following are extracts from his address.

"I would like to take this opportunity to thank you, Mr President, your government and "la gente de Cuba" (the people of Cuba) for your warm and cordial welcome.

I am indeed very happy to extend our word of congratulations to President Castro and the Republic of Cuba for having been elected to chair this movement of the countries of the South, the NAM. We are confident that the Republic of Cuba, which since independence has demonstrated an extraordinary commitment to the liberation and empowerment of the poor, will bring the same attributes to this important organisation of developing nations.

Again, we wish Fidel Castro a speedy recovery so that this important leader of the South can take his rightful place in this conclave. We would also like to sincerely thank the outgoing chair of the NAM, Prime Minister Abddallah Badawi of Malaysia, for steering the organisation with distinction over the past three years.

In coming to the Caribbean, we reaffirm, as the Non-Aligned-Movement does time and again, the solidarity of our movement across the divides of continents and oceans. As South Africa ends her term as a member of the Troika, we reflect on a full circle from Cartagena to Durban and Kuala Lumpur and back again to the Americas. This is a circle that has often been drawn and will again continue to repeat itself in accordance with the universality of the Non-Aligned-Movement and our endearing aspirations to make of the world a better place for us and our children.

That lies at the heart of our Movement and that is the circumference of our potential strength. It is with such an ongoing sense of aspiration and anticipation that South Africa vacates her seat on the Troika in favour of another African country, Egypt.

Half a century ago, Indonesia hosted an important gathering that sought to make a contribution to the ordering of the system of international relations in the period following the end of the Second World War and the onset of the Cold War. Bandung, more that anything else, was an initiative on the part of the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist movement to ensure that the peoples of the South take their destiny into their own hands and give notice that colonialism, apartheid and foreign domination would no longer be tolerated. I am confident that this resolve has not changed! In fact, it is now more than ever necessary to be vigilant and protect the legacy of our past achievements in ridding ourselves of the legacy of foreign domination and third-world status.

Ours is therefore also more than a mere geographical bonding of countries of the South, but a commitment to respect the history of our Movement, remaining loyal to the causes that inspired us from the very beginning of our common journey. On its recent past a cohesive and united NAM made significant advances at key global conferences and on issues culminating, among others, in the historic Millennium Declaration. In addition, the Havana South Summit formulated a comprehensive and focused agenda for interaction between ourselves, as countries of the South as well as with the developed countries of the North.

For us to do justice to the high ideals of our predecessors and address the ongoing pressing needs of our peoples, we must remain focused on the essential reasons why all of us, representatives of billions of peoples of the world, have elected to be part of this Movement.

We cannot suggest that this will be the case if we do not set ourselves unambiguous and attainable goals – and deliver the same! In this day and age we cannot afford the luxury of waiting for things to happen of their own accord, or worse, by the will of others.

The agenda before us today recognises the need to reform the structures and methodology of our Movement and seek new coherence and solidarity if we wish to be heard. Can we, as we return to our own countries, be assured that we have taken the right decisions – decisions that will work towards the alleviation and eradication of poverty and underdevelopment and the upliftment of the masses of our peoples?

Can we go from here to gather in the meeting halls of the United Nations (UN) knowing that we are coherent in our solidarity to confront pressing issues of development, security and human rights in the context of the current debate on UN reform? Will we say, as we conclude this important Summit that we have interrogated all issues and formulated appropriate responses that would help us defeat the scourge of unilateralism and the continuing impoverishment and marginalisation of billions of our citizens?

Indeed, Your Excellencies, many of these issues demand principled responses from us. These include the ongoing debate on the right of access to nuclear technology for peaceful purposes; the self determination of the peoples of Palestine and Western Sahara; the centrality of the UN Charter and international law in the peaceful resolution of conflicts and the scourge of terrorism and its root causes. These challenges also include the matters of conflict resolution in Africa, the pressing matters of development, with Africa being a special case where our collective efforts are required to assist individual countries meet the Millennium Development Goals. Indeed this Movement should have a unified and principled position and respond appropriately to the comprehensive reforms of the United Nations including the newly established mechanisms such as the Human Rights Council and the Peace Building Commission.

Our meeting here in Havana – so very close to New York, the seat of the UN General Assembly and the Security Council – seems an opportune moment for us to adopt decisions that will expedite the completion of the reform of the UN. As members of both NAM and the G-77, our gathering here as the XIV Summit of our Movement, must carry a unified and unequivocal message reaffirming to the world at large that the NAM is very much alive, relevant and will continue making the necessary interventions so as to ensure that the poor and the marginalised would begin to walk tall as equals among the people of the world.

Together we must continue to say – the struggle continues and victory is certain!"

India Ready to Coordinate NAM Working Group on Energy Security

At the 14th Non-Aligned Summit in Havana, the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, suggested a number of initiatives that the Movement could take. These included the constitution of a high level group for West Asia, elaborating a NAM Initiative on Africa, and India’s readiness to coordinate a NAM Working Group on Energy Security. Presented below are extracts from the Prime Minister’s statement to the NAM Summit on 15 September, 2006 in Havana, Cuba.

"At the outset, I would like to congratulate Cuba on its assumption of the Chair of NAM at this important juncture for our Movement. Our national leadership, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, one of the founding fathers of our movement, Prime Ministers Mrs Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi, has always had profound admiration and respect for President Fidel Castro. We wish him a speedy recovery, good health and a long life.

Allow me, Mr. Chairman, to compliment Malaysia and especially Prime Minister Badawi for the skillful stewardship of our Movement and the considerable effort to revitalize it.

Mr. Chairman, the Non-Aligned Movement has been described as one of the greatest peace movements of our time. A child of our anti-colonial struggles, this Movement was conceived as an association of free people. Our beloved Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, one of the architects of this Movement, said, "Non-alignment is freedom of action which is a part of independence." He wanted us to judge issues "in full freedom and without any pre-conceived partisan bias." This vision has enabled our people to march into the 21st century with confidence. It is this confidence that must continue to shape our perspectives in the years ahead.

Mr. Chairman, we live in an increasingly interdependent world. The challenge ahead is to promote a balanced and equitable management of this interdependence of nations. As globalization progresses, national and regional boundaries are becoming less and less relevant. The challenges we face as nations are increasingly less amenable to purely national and autonomous solutions. Environmental degradation and climate change recognize no national borders. Pandemics like HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB or Avian Flu can only be contained or overcome through international cooperation. Terrorism anywhere threatens peace everywhere. Our problems are global, so must our solutions be.

The United Nations played a creative and a critical leadership role in shaping the international agenda in the past. It has to do so again. From whatever direction one approaches issues of global concern, all paths lead to the need for reforming the UN and revitalizing the UN General Assembly. The developing world must find its due representation among the permanent members of the UN Security Council. We must join hands with other like minded countries to promote democratization of processes of global governance, ushering in a new global polity based on the rule of law, reason and equity.

We, the members of the Non-Aligned Movement constitute more than half of the membership of the United Nations. Our collective strength is unmatched, and we must now unite behind a common and a fundamentally new vision of "inclusive globalization".

We must work together, for example, for a development-oriented outcome in the on-going multilateral trade negotiations. In economic affairs, the biblical saying "to him that hath shall be given" has wide applicability. Therefore, we need concerted global strategies to empower the poor and the deprived for an equitable sharing in the fruits of economic and social development. We need new pathways of global cooperation to harness the full potential of advances in science and technology to improve the human condition and to deal effectively with poverty, marginalization and inequality. Globalisation must be accompanied by a more balanced and equitable distribution of its benefits. Otherwise the global response to these challenges will remain uneven and partial at best.

Mr. Chairman, the process of globalization has made us all citizens of a global village. This has made it all the more necessary that we show greater mutual understanding and tolerance towards each other. An appreciation of the values of plural democracy has become more compelling. As non-aligned countries, we led the struggle against attempts to divide the world into ideologically irreconciliable blocs. We espoused peaceful co-existence and the higher cause of humanity beyond racial divisions. Today, we again confront the danger of the world being split along an artificially created cultural and religious divide.

The Non-Aligned Movement, encompassing as it does, every religion professed by mankind, every ethnic group and ideological persuasion, is uniquely placed today, once again, to play the role of a bridge of understanding. Our cooperative world view is in itself a rejection of the notion of a "clash of civilizations". Rather, our message to the world should be that it is possible to work for a "confluence of civilizations".

Promoting a better understanding of each other through a "dialogue between civilizations" is also a potent weapon against terrorism. If NAM is to be relevant in today´s circumstances, it cannot afford to equivocate on the subject of terrorism. A message must emanate from us that we are united in our desire to fight and eliminate the scourge of terrorism. We cannot allow the forces of intolerance and extremism to distract the world´s attention from the vital concerns of our people – the problems of poverty, ignorance and disease.

Mr. Chairman, the emerging fault lines of the new ideological divide are nowhere more apparent today than in West Asia. We have just been witness to a tragic and pointless war in Lebanon. It has only sharpened the sense of alienation and resentment, brutalizing a country that had just begun to reclaim its heritage of inter-ethnic and inter-religious harmony after years of conflict. The growing polarization in West Asia will have negative consequences not only for the countries of the region, but the world as a whole. I believe that the Non-Aligned Movement, for the reasons I have mentioned earlier, is uniquely placed to play a constructive role in the restoration of peace and harmony in West Asia.

I would recommend that we constitute a suitable high level group for West Asia that could include countries who enjoy the confidence and trust of the parties concerned and who could undertake a sustained mission to promote understanding in the region and assist in the implementation of the agreed roadmap towards a comprehensive peace. The international community must address more fully its responsibility to resolve this issue and bring to an end once and for all the long years of suffering of the Palestinian people.

Mr. Chairman, it is a matter of regret that the issue of disarmament and the special focus on nuclear disarmament has been marginalized in global discourse. Even though India is a State in possession of nuclear weapons, we strongly believe that the best guarantee against the threat of proliferation of WMD lies in disarmament. In 1988 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi had presented to the UN General Assembly a detailed and credible Action Plan for Nuclear Disarmament. I believe the time has come for NAM to once again assume an active and leading role in advocating nuclear disarmament. India has prepared a Working Paper on Nuclear Disarmament which will be circulated as a document at the UNGA Session this year. We would invite fellow members of NAM to join us in our efforts to achieve universal nuclear disarmament and a world free of all nuclear weapons.

Yet another challenge of the 21st Century is the protection of our environment and the assurance of energy security for all. At the First World Summit on the Environment, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared, "there is no first, second or third world; we are all part of One World". The Non-Aligned Movement should take the lead in articulating a "new paradigm of energy security", that addresses the needs of all peoples and of our planet.

A NAM Working Group on Energy Security could be constituted to:

1. Draw up a NAM Action Plan for Energy Security based on a shift from fossil fuels to non-fossil fuels; and from non-renewable sources to renewable sources of energy.

2. Create a NAM-wide network for sharing best practices in energy efficiency and conservation, in order to substantially reduce the energy intensity of GDP growth; and

3. Establish a network of institutes to engage in research in developing new and clean sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydrogen fuel cells and bio-fuels, including bio-mass and bio-diesel.

India would be prepared to coordinate such a group.

Mr. Chairman, African countries form the largest single grouping in NAM as well as in the U.N.G.A. The future of our planet is inextricably linked to the destiny of Africa. I believe this is an opportune time for us to take a major NAM initiative on Africa. The initiative should focus on two critical areas, that of human resource development and of agricultural development. The NAM initiative on Africa would involve setting up of a mechanism, in cooperation with the African Union, to pool our assets for investment in the future of Africa. India itself is currently involved in setting up a Pan-African Satellite Communications Network, which could be used for distance-learning and tele-medicine projects. We would be prepared to work together with other interested NAM countries on elaborating the NAM Initiative on Africa.

Mr. Chairman, if we wish to revitalize the Non-Aligned Movement the collective message of our Summit must be seen as being central to the success of global efforts to deal with urgent transnational issues – be it terrorism, pandemics, energy security or the environment. As a group we have rejected extremes. We must spread the message of Gandhiji, the apostle of peace. Our voice must then be one of moderation, harmony and reason. If such is the voice of more than half of the people of the world, it will prevail. And, it will guide the destiny of our planet."

Time to Set Up a Second South Commission – Chavez

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, has called for the setting up of the second South Commission, presided by President Fidel Castro of Cuba to present a strategy to reactivate South-South cooperation and the integration of the South. Speaking at the 14th Summit of the Non-Aliged Movement (NAM) in Havana on 15 September, President Chávez said time was of the essence in setting up critical Southern institutions like a South Bank, a South University network and a South Television chain. The following is a translated version by Dawn Gable of his NAM address. The statement has been taken from

"I am going to allow myself to read a part of the prologue written in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania by Julius Nyerere in May 1990, fulfilling the mission entrusted to him precisely by NAM. [The Challenge to the South: The Report of the South Commission ISBN: 0198773110] This is what he said:

"Preface of the President – The commission made up of individuals who participated as private citizens and who came from all Southern continents, emerged from the recognition that, in this part of the world, although the developing countries have many problems and experiences in common, there has not been anyone charged with observing them on a global scale nor extracting from them relevant conclusions and strategies of development." Later on it says… I am going to skip a few paragraphs to save time… It says, "But, in addition, the South doesn’t know the South, that is to say, what is happening in our countries, what are the ideas of our people, what is our potential and how South-South cooperation can broaden development options for all our countries. Instead we have been compelled to commit our own errors, unable neither to learn from the experience of the others in similar situations nor to benefit from other’s positive experiences."

Further on it talks about how the commission came to be. The proposal emerged after the NAM Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe in 1986 - over here is Mugabe. It was Malaysia who proposed the creation of a South Commission and recommended Nyerere chair it. He accepted. They worked for 3 years and in 1990 they presented this report. Here is the report. Numerous academics of the South, intellectuals, social scientists, economists, historians, men and women of science, popular leaders, and political leaders participated in who knows how many debates, who knows, Mr. President, how many conferences, how many hours of work with forthright hope.

Now, what happened? This is my personal impression from observing recent history… when Julius Nyerere… And I believe there are some of you here who worked on this. I know that my good friend, the Prime Minister of India worked on it because I read it here in the report from which I just recited those wise words. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

When they presented the report - a product of the history of recent decades - because as I commented this morning, I think NAM has gone through various stages, which are stages of the world’s history - in the 60’s we could say, dear friends and colleagues, that the world of the South, the underdeveloped world, the Third World, experienced what we could call the illusion of economic growth, the illusion that economic growth would bring development. Indications of that growth in the 60’s, 50’s, and above all the 70’s exist - an illusion of growth. But world disorder commenced after that, as is summarized here in the first chapter, the disorder of the economic model, the crisis of the 80’s, foreign debt, and recession. The illusion of growth and development came to an end. And we were lost like a pilot without a compass who doesn’t know where he his going and flies into a hurricane, a storm. As a result of that storm, that crisis, the intention of NAM and this commission emerged and the work of this Commission and its Report.

Now, at the same time the report was presented, the Soviet Union fell, contributing to a greater world destabilization. The U.S., its allies and world capitalism then rose up to sing of victory and tried to claim the "victory."

This is when they unleashed, against the people not only of Latin America, but also of Africa, Asia and Oceania, the neo-liberal proposal. The so-called Washington Consensus, structural adjustment packages, privatization, the reduction of State, the elimination of planning. NAM group, fell into a kind of deepfreeze, and this [report] was stillborn. Or to put in a less lugubriously, it was put in a freezer upon birth. I believe that no one even discussed it. There was no time.

Now, after 15 years have passed since the neo-liberal illusion, as well as the Monetary Fund illusion that the world experienced - we have lived illusions within illusions. The Fata Morgana, the vision that lured sailors to their doom. The Fata Morgana. Illusions, like the siren song of capitalism. It has passed; the illusion of the end of history has disappeared. Now we have awoken once again to harsh reality. And as President Raúl Castro said this morning, poverty, hunger, the destruction of the peoples of the land and the destruction of the environment have increased in the world. We are destroying the planet!

Now, Mr. President, I want to submit this proposal to the Assembly, and God willing, this proposal will not end up like many others in recent years. We run around making proposals like crazy, here and there, throwing them to the wind. The majority of our proposals are thrown to the wind. We rush around and we hardly discuss or debate. They remain documents. From these resolutions or manifestations of good wishes, almost nothing materializes. It is a truth that we put our problems, like we put our hopes for solutions, on the North. The solutions are right here, among us. [We must] make decisions and bring them into practice: be capable of making them reality.

What I would like to suggest today, Mr. President, when Cuba assumed the presidency this morning, the assignment of a new commission of the South that would take this book as its jumping off point, since it contains a series of recommendations that I believe few of us are aware of. I had to search for this book. After prison I had lost it. But I found it.

Here for example is a proposal that we have made in Latin America…where it is advancing…with difficulties, but advancing…a Bank of the South. Where are the national reserves of our countries? Where do we have them? Everyone knows where the majority of them are: in banks of the North. The proposal aims to— willfully, intelligently, and resolutely—bring to life the Bank of the South. We mustn’t lose one more day on this. Deposit part of our national reserves and create a powerful bank to finance our development. And not in ways imposed by the IMF and World Bank in exchange for what? Many times in exchange for sovereignty, in exchange for principles, in exchange for the souls and the hopes of millions of human beings. Because they have no souls. Imperialism has no soul. But our people do have souls and sorrow and hope.

Let’s do it, Mr. President, let’s see this Commission. I propose that Fidel Castro preside over this new Commission, and that it be formed and in the shortest period possible it present a strategy to reactivate South–South cooperation, the integration of the South. In addition to a bank of the South, in here [Venezuela’s proposal] are proposals, for example, for a University of the South, a university system of the South and a World TV network of the South so that we can get to know ourselves. Venezuela has also proposed PetroSur, a petroleum-energy pact for the South. We in the South have the largest reserves of petroleum and gas and gold and precious minerals. So much wealth. It was Símon Bolívar who said it, nearby in Jamaica in 1815. "More than anyone, I desire to see this land fashioned into the greatest nation in the world, greatest not so much by virtue of her area and wealth as by her freedom and glory." This was in the Carta de Jamaica.

And later he added what I would like to repeat here nearly 200 years later, with this humble recommendation: Let’s truly unite, compañeros and compañeras, let’s truly unite in the South and we will have a future, we will have dignity, our people will have life. Raúl, this morning concluded his speech quoting Fidel from a speech in which he spoke about unity. Quoting Fidel, he said: Let’s unite to demand our right to life, our right to a future.

I would add to that memorable speech of Fidel: Let’s unite to liberate ourselves, to exist, to self-construct the South."

‘NAM Will Have Decisive Influence on Human Challenges’

The documents and decisions adopted at the 14th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in Havana, Cuba, will enable the Movement to have a decisive influence in the debate and solution of the main challenges that face humanity and, in particular, the people of the South. That was the view expressed by Raúl Castro Ruz, the acting President of Cuba, in his closing address. The following are excerpts from his statement of 16 September, 2006.

"After many hours of uninterrupted and productive work, the time has come to try and summarize, in a brief speech, what, in our opinion, has been an excellent summit.

I would first of all like to thank the many Heads of State and Government and other leaders and officials of our Movement’s member nations, whose active participation and valuable contributions have been decisive in the positive outcome of the conference.

We have approved important documents and initiatives. The reaffirmation of the non-aligned countries’ stance with respect to the most pressing political, economic and social issues of our times and the regional and sub-regional problems that affect our nations most severely stands out among these initiatives.

The ratification of the purposes and principles and the role of the Non-Aligned Movement at the current international juncture gives us a solid framework for action based on those norms which the Movement deems should govern international relations in our efforts to build a fairer and more equitable world.

We have, as always, expressed our solidarity towards the cause of the Palestinian people, who, living under the harsh conditions of permanent aggression, needs it today more than ever.

In brief, the positions and initiatives we have considered and approved confirm the identity, raison d’etre and validity of the Non-Aligned Movement and will allow us to move forward in our common endeavour towards our goal: to revitalize the Movement so that it will play a role in the international arena that is in keeping not only with its current membership of 118 countries but also our history of battles in the name of the loftiest causes.

The future of the non-aligned countries is imperilled by the ever more pressing challenges posed by the current international situation. The use of force, threats, coercion and the violation of the principles of international law are ever present. Underdevelopment, poverty, marginalisation, hunger, illiteracy, the spread of preventable diseases, the deterioration of the environment and the squandering of the planet’s resources are persistent evils.

What became evident in our debates is that, if it was necessary and possible to create the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries more than four decades ago, today its further strengthening is more necessary than ever.

The fact that an atmosphere of understanding prevailed during this Summit and that we were able to reach solid consensuses, even on the most complex issues, clearly shows that we have decided to give priority to that which unites us, in order to face, together, the effects of the economic and political order imposed upon us by the powerful, an order which is not only profoundly unfair but also unsustainable.

Cuba is aware that it will have greater responsibilities from this moment on, having accepted the honour, which you have conferred upon us, of presiding over the Movement at a very difficult time.

As the holder of the Presidency, Cuba shall work for an inclusive and representative Movement, to advance towards a common agenda, in defense of our collective interests.

Our actions will always be based on the principle of solidarity, one of the cornerstones of the Non-Aligned Movement, and we shall never forget that in this globalised world, what affects a few today can be used against many tomorrow.

Two other important international meetings, the Summit of the Group of 15 and the Summit of Land-Locked Developing Countries, were held this past 14 September, parallel this Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement.

We commend their participants for the excellent results obtained and we thank them for maintaining close ties to the Movement, as, in essence, we all defend common principles and goals, our struggle for the advancement of our peoples in particular.

This 14th Non-Aligned Summit, the success of which fills us with happiness and satisfaction, has been a grand experience for us. Its excellent results are owed to your collective work and to the cooperation among all delegations. This feels us with deep satisfaction and encourages us to continue down the road paved by the documents adopted.

On behalf of the people and the government of Cuba and, particularly, on behalf of President Fidel Castro, I want to express our sincerest gratitude for the support you have given to the development of the Conference and for your valuable contribution to its success.

We are convinced that, in the coming months and years, the documents and decisions adopted here will enable the Movement to have a decisive influence in the debate and solution of the main challenges that face humanity and, in particular, the people of the South.

I declare the 14th Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement closed."

Purposes, Principles and the Role of NAM

The ‘Declaration on the Purposes and Principles and the Role of the Non Aligned Movement in the Current International Situation,’ was the result of several weeks of consultation among the NAM foreign ministries. It confirms the role of the movement as a forum of political coordination for the underdeveloped countries to promote and defend their common interests and to develop unity, solidarity and cooperation among its members. The document rejects the threats to world peace and security and condemns all manifestations of unilateralism; attempts to exert hegemonic domination; the preventive attack doctrine, including with nuclear arms, against Third World countries; military actions and the use and threat of use of force; and the labeling of countries as good or evil. In two parts, the Declaration signed on 16 September, 2006 is reproduced below.

Part 1 – Purposes and Principles

1. The Heads of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), meeting in Havana, Cuba, on the 15th and 16th of September 2006, on the occasion of the XIV Summit, reaffirmed their commitment to the ideals, principles and purposes upon which the Movement was founded and with the principles and purposes enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations.

2. They affirmed their full conviction that the XIV NAM Summit takes place against the backdrop of an extremely complex international situation. On a political level, there is a need to promote the goal of creating a multipolar world order, based on respect for the application of the principles of International Law and the UN Charter and the reinforcement of multilateralism. On an economic level, underdevelopment, poverty, hunger and marginalisation have intensified within the ongoing process of globalization, aggravating the structural imbalances and inequalities that affect the international economic order. The security and wellbeing of our nations are being challenged as never before.

3. They reaffirmed the mutual reinforcement between development, peace, security and human rights while stressing the right of people to live in dignity and well-being.

4. They reiterated that the principles and purposes of the NAM continue to be effective and valid. They stated their firm belief that the absence of two conflicting blocs in no way reduces the need to strengthen the NAM as a mechanism for the political coordination of developing countries. Now more than ever it is essential that our nations remain united and steadfast and are increasingly active in order to successfully confront unilateralism and interventionism.

5. They also agreed that due to the existence of quantitatively and qualitatively more complex challenges than those facing the Movement when it was formed, all members must adopt measures to revitalise and strengthen the purposes, principles, structures, mechanisms and working methods of the Movement. In this regard they acknowledged that it remains imperative to strengthen and revitalise the NAM, as was agreed during the XIII Summit held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in February 2003. The Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Continuing the Revitalisation of the NAM continues to be completely effective and valid and represents a fundamental frame of reference for the furtherance of this process.

6. They reaffirmed their political will to strengthen the Non-Aligned Movement. One of their main aims is to ensure that the Movement is a dynamic and effective mechanism to coordinate, support, represent and defend the interests and priorities of its members. To do so, they agreed to strengthen concerted action, unity and solidarity between all its members, based on respect for diversity and sovereignty, factors which are essential for the reaffirmation of the identity and capacity of the Movement to influence international relations.

7. They stressed the need to promote actively a leading role for the NAM Movement in the coordination of efforts among Member States in tackling global threats such as transnational organised crime, the world drug problem, including illicit drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and terrorism, through the development of successful strategies in accordance with relevant United Nations instruments.

8. Inspired by the Bandung Principles and the purposes which brought into being the NAM during the Belgrade Summit in 1961, the Heads of State and Government of the member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, meeting in Havana, stated that the Purposes of the Movement in the present international situation are:

a. To promote and reinforce multilateralism and, in this regard, strengthen the central role that the United Nations must play.

b. To serve as a forum of political coordination of the developing countries to promote and defend their common interests in the system of international relations.

c. To promote unity, solidarity and cooperation between developing countries based on shared values and priorities agreed upon by consensus.

d. To defend international peace and security and settle all international disputes by peaceful means in accordance with the principles and the purposes of the UN Charter and International Law.

e. To encourage relations of friendship and cooperation between all nations based on the principles of International Law, particularly those enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations.

f. To promote and encourage sustainable development through international cooperation and, to that end, jointly coordinate the implementation of political strategies which strengthen and ensure the full participation of all countries, rich and poor, in the international economic relations, under equal conditions and opportunities but with differentiated responsibilities.

g. To encourage the respect, enjoyment and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, on the basis of the principles of universality, objectivity, impartiality and non-selectivity, avoiding politicization of human rights issues, thus ensuring that all human rights of individuals and peoples, including the right to development, are promoted and protected in a balanced manner.

h. To promote peaceful coexistence between nations, regardless of their political, social or economic systems.

i. To condemn all manifestations of unilateralism and attempts to exercise hegemonic domination in international relations.

j. To coordinate actions and strategies in order to confront jointly the threats to international peace and security, including the threats of use of force and the acts of aggression, colonialism and foreign occupation, and other breaches of peace caused by any country or group of countries.

k. To promote the strengthening and democratisation of the UN, giving the General Assembly the role granted to it in accordance with the functions and powers outlined in the Charter and to promote the comprehensive reform of the United Nations Security Council so that it may fulfil the role granted to it by the Charter, in a transparent and equitable manner, as the body primarily responsible for maintaining international peace and security.

l. To continue pursuing universal and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament, as well as a general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control and in this context, to work towards the objective of arriving at an agreement on a phased program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons within a specified framework of time to eliminate nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use and to provide for their destruction.

m. To oppose and condemn the categorisation of countries as good or evil based on unilateral and unjustified criteria, and the adoption of a doctrine of pre-emptive attack, including attack by nuclear weapons, which is inconsistent with international law, in particular, the international legally-binding instruments concerning nuclear disarmament and to further condemn and oppose unilateral military actions, or use of force or threat of use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of Non-Aligned countries.

n. To encourage States to conclude agreements freely arrived at, among the States of the regions concerned, to establish new Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones in regions where these do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of the First Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament (SSOD.1) and the principles adopted by the 1999 UN Disarmament Commission, including the establishment of a Nuclear Weapons Free Zone in the Middle East. The establishment of Nuclear Weapons-Free Zones is a positive step and important measure towards strengthening global nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.

o. To promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to facilitate access to nuclear technology, equipment and material for peaceful purposes required by developing countries.

p. To promote concrete initiatives of South-South cooperation and strengthen the role of NAM, in coordination with G.77, in the re-launching of North-South cooperation, ensuring the fulfilment of the right to development of our peoples, through the enhancement of international solidarity.

q. To respond to the challenges and to take advantage of the opportunities arising from globalization and interdependence with creativity and a sense of identity in order to ensure its benefits to all countries, particularly those most affected by underdevelopment and poverty, with a view to gradually reducing the abysmal gap between the developed and developing countries.

r. To enhance the role that civil society, including NGO´s, can play at the regional and international levels in order to promote the purposes, principles and objectives of the Movement.

9. In order to realize the aforementioned Purposes, the Heads of State and Government of the member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, equally inspired by the Bandung Principles and the purposes which brought into being the NAM during the First Summit in Belgrade, agreed that the actions of the Movement will be guided by the following Principles:

a. Respect for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and International Law.

b. Respect for sovereignty, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States.

c. Recognition of the equality of all races, religions, cultures and all nations, both big and small.

d. Promotion of a dialogue among peoples, civilizations, cultures and religions based on the respect of religions, their symbols and values, the promotion and the consolidation of tolerance and freedom of belief.

e. Respect for and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, including the effective implementation of the right of peoples to peace and development.

f. Respect for the equality of rights of States, including the inalienable right of each State to determine freely its political, social, economic and cultural system, without any kind of interference whatsoever from any other State.

g. Reaffirmation of the validity and relevance of the Movement’s principled positions concerning the right to self-determination of peoples under foreign occupation and colonial or alien domination.

h. Non-interference in the internal affairs of States. No State or group of States has the right to intervene either directly or indirectly, whatever the motive, in the internal affairs of any other State.

i. Rejection of unconstitutional change of Governments.

j. Rejection of attempts at regime change.

k. Condemnation of the use of mercenaries in all situations, especially in conflict situations.

l. Refraining by all countries from exerting pressure or coercion on other countries, including resorting to aggression or other acts involving the use of direct or indirect force, and the application and/or promotion of any coercive unilateral measure that goes against International Law or is in any way incompatible with it, for the purpose of coercing any other State to subordinate its sovereign rights, or to gain any benefit whatsoever.

m. Total rejection of aggression as a dangerous and serious breach of International Law, which entails international responsibility for the aggressor.

n. Respect for the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

o. Condemnation of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and systematic and gross violations of human rights, in accordance with the UN Charter and International Law.

p. Rejection of and opposition to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. In this context, terrorism should not be equated with the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for self-determination and national liberation.

q. Promotion of pacific settlement of disputes and abjuring, under any circumstances, from taking part in coalitions, agreements or any other kind of unilateral coercive initiative in violation of the principles of International Law and the Charter of the United Nations.

r. Defence and consolidation of democracy, reaffirming that democracy is a universal value based on the freely expressed will of people to determine their own political, economic, social, and cultural systems and their full participation in all aspects of their life.

s. Promotion and defence of multilateralism and multilateral organisations as the appropriate frameworks to resolve, through dialogue and cooperation, the problems affecting humankind.

t. Support to efforts by countries suffering internal conflicts to achieve peace, justice, equality and development.

u. The duty of each State to fully and in good faith comply with the international treaties to which it is a party, as well as to honour the commitments made in the framework of international organisations, and to live in peace with other States.

v. Peaceful settlement of all international conflicts in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

w. Defence and promotion of shared interests, justice and cooperation, regardless of the differences existing in the political, economic and social systems of the States, on the basis of mutual respect and the equality of rights.

x. Solidarity as a fundamental component of relations among nations in all circumstances.

y. Respect for the political, economic, social and cultural diversity of countries and peoples.

10. Guided by these Purposes and Principles, the Heads of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Movement acknowledge the pressing need to act as one in a resolute and supportive manner in order to achieve the sustainable development of our peoples, as well as to promote regional and international peace and security.

11. The Heads of State and Government of the member nations of the Non-Aligned movement, while acknowledging the importance of global partnership, stressed the importance of developing innovative mechanisms of cooperation for the attainment of sustainable development.

Part 2- Policy Guidelines

12. With the aim of creating the proper framework to achieve the aforementioned purposes in accordance with the proclaimed principles, the Heads of State and Government of the member nations of the Non-Aligned Movement have agreed the following concrete measures and actions:

i. To focus on issues that unite, rather than divide, the members of the Movement, thereby strengthening its unity and cohesion.

ii. To continue making progress in the process of revitalising and strengthening the Movement, including the implementation of specific agreements and measures adopted in the context of the "Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the Continuing Revitalisation of the Non-Aligned Movement".

iii. To promote multilateralism in international fora, and the priorities and principles of the Non-Aligned Movement.

iv. To revitalise and reinforce the Movement and its ability to achieve concerted positions and to respond efficiently to the various events and issues affecting the interests and priorities of its member countries. To this end, the Movement’s permanent mechanisms should be revitalised and strengthened so that they may function in both a dynamic and effective manner, as agreed to in the Havana Document on Methodology.

v. To promote concerted actions of the Movement within the system of the United Nations, including, whenever possible, joint draft resolutions to be presented to the UN General Assembly, as well as to other relevant specialised bodies and agencies within the system, on issues of common interest to the Non-Aligned countries, which are consistent with the principles and priorities outlined by the Movement and in line with its agreed positions.

vi. To systematically update the scope and content of the documents to be adopted in the Summits and Ministerial Conferences in order to produce comprehensive and action-oriented texts. The political statements must be concise documents that forcefully put forth the positions of principles of the Movement in fundamental issues of interest to its member countries.

vii. To implement the agreed Plan of Action of the Movement. This Plan of Action must be the object of a continuous follow-up in order to evaluate its implementation and take measures in order to improve and update it.

viii. To identify and promote a political agenda in global economic issues of priority interest to developing countries. To revive Ministerial Meetings devoted to development and economic issues, including trade and finance. Given that the Group of 77 basically carries out the functions of coordinating and planning the positions of the developing countries on economic and social issues, the Movement must not overlap, duplicate or try to replace the work of G-77 on these issues, but act as a mechanism aimed at supporting and ensuring political definitions for the activities of the G-77.

ix. To expand and strengthen relations and exchanges, as appropriate, with other regional and sub-regional organisations, in order to ensure that the views of the Movement are heard and duly taken into consideration in the various fora and levels where discussions are carried-out and decisions are taken, regarding issues of interest and priority to the Non-Aligned countries. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to form closer relations with other organisations that represent the interests of the South in order to ensure that developing countries are coherent and cohesive in promoting and defending their legitimate interests in the international arena.

x. To coordinate the work of the existing mechanisms of the Movement in New York, Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, Paris and The Hague, in the work of the relevant UN organs and agencies, upon identifying their respective priority areas of concern and competence, bearing in mind the position of the Coordinating Bureau in New York as the focal point for coordination of the Movement

13. The Heads of State and Government of the member nations of the Non-Aligned Movement, while acknowledging the important role that the Movement has played since its inception, expressed their firm conviction that they would continue to make progress towards the attainment of the goals and purposes outlined by the developing countries. Our unity and solidarity is only relevant if the NAM continues to play an active, important and constructive role in international relations, so that a more just and equal world order may be achieved.

14. The Non-Aligned Movement, faced with the goals yet to be reached and the many new challenges that are arising, is called upon to maintain a prominent and leading role in current international relations in defence of the interests and priorities of its Member States. The developing countries will be marginalized if they are unable to define their priorities, share their concerns and efficiently design their own actions so as to ensure that their interests are taken duly into consideration. Thus, it is imperative that the Movement continues to be in the front-line in the struggle to change and transform the present unjust international order.

Nelson Mandela Memorial Lecture – II

The 4th annual Nelson Mandela Lecture was delivered by President Thabo Mbeki at the University of Witwatersrand on 29 July, 2006. Among the guests were Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, Dr. Graca Machel, and the Deputy President of South Africa, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka. This issue of the South Bulletin carries the the concluding part of this lecture. The previous issue contained the first half of this Lecture.

"In these circumstances, the meaning of freedom has come to be defined not by the seemingly ethereal and therefore intangible gift of liberty, but by the designer labels on the clothes we wear, the cars we drive, the spaciousness of our houses and our yards, their geographic location, the company we keep, and what we do as part of that company.

In the event that what I have said has come across as a meaningless ramble, let me state what I have been saying more directly.

It is perfectly obvious that many in our society, having absorbed the value system of the capitalist market, have come to the conclusion that, for them, personal success and fulfilment means personal enrichment at all costs, and the most theatrical and striking public display of that wealth.

What this means is that many in our society have come to accept that what is socially correct is not the proverbial expression - "manners maketh the man" - but the notion that each one of us is as excellent a human being as our demonstrated wealth suggests!

On previous occasions, I have cited statements made by the well-known financier, George Soros, which directly confront the crisis to social cohesion and human solidarity caused by what I have sought to address - the elevation of the profit motive and the personal acquisition of wealth as the principal and guiding objectives in the construction of modern societies, including our own.

With you permission, and because it is relevant to what I am trying to communicate, I will take the liberty to quote this paragraph once again, believing that it resonates with a particular sense of honesty, because it emanates from one of the iconic figures of late 20th century capitalism.

Among other things, George Soros said that in an earlier epoch, "People were guided by a set of moral principles that found expression in behaviour outside the scope of the market mechanism…

"Unsure of what they stand for, people increasingly rely on money as the criterion of value. What is more expensive is considered better…People deserve respect and admiration because they are rich. What used to be a medium of exchange has usurped the place of fundamental values, reversing the relationship postulated by economic theory. What used to be professions have turned into businesses. The cult of success has replaced a belief in principles. Society has lost its anchor…

"The laissez-faire argument against income redistribution invokes the doctrine of the survival of the fittest…There is something wrong with making the survival of the fittest a guiding principle of civilised society…Cooperation is as much a part of the (economic) system as competition, and the slogan ‘survival of the fittest’ distorts this fact…

"I blame the prevailing attitude, which holds that the unhampered pursuit of self-interest will bring about an eventual international equilibrium (in the world economy)."

(All quotations from: George Soros: "The Capitalist Threat". The Atlantic Monthly, February 1997.)

The critical concern that George Soros has expressed is what he describes as "market fundamentalism", the dominance and precedence of the capitalist motive of private profit maximisation, which has evolved into the central objective that informs the construction of modern human society in all its elements.

Nothing can come out of this except the destruction of human society, resulting from the atomisation of society into an agglomeration of individuals who pursue mutually antagonistic materialist goals.

Necessarily, and inevitably, this cannot but negate social cohesion and mutually beneficial human solidarity, and therefore the most fundamental condition of the existence of all human beings, namely, the mutually interdependent human relationships without which the individual human being cannot exist.

I am arguing that, whatever the benefit to any individual member of our nation, including all those present in this hall, we nevertheless share a fundamental objective to defeat the tendency in our society towards the deification of personal wealth as the distinguishing feature of the new citizen of the new South Africa.

With some trepidation, advisedly assuming that there is the allotted proportion of hardened cynics present here this evening, I will nevertheless make bold to quote an ancient text, which reads, in Old English:

"Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.

"How long wilt thou sleep, O sluggard? when wilt thou arise out of thy sleep? Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep: so shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth, and thy want as an armed man."

I know that given the level of education of our audience this evening, the overwhelming majority among us will know that I have extracted the passages I have quoted from the Book of Proverbs contained in the St James’ edition of the Holy Bible.

It may be that the scepticism of our age has dulled our collective and individual sensitivity to the messages of this Book of Faith and all the messages that it seeks to convey to all of us.

In this regard, I know that I have not served the purposes of this Book well, by exploiting the possibility it provides, to say to you and everybody else who might be listening - "Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise…"

Everyday, the ant, one of the smallest inhabitants of our common animal world, goes about her ways in search of sustenance, depending on nature’s harvest in all seasons, as well as her own little ways, to provide her with meat in the hot summer months.

To consider her ways means that we too, who unknowingly squash to death the miniscule pygmies of the world, as we tread the common earth as giants of the universe, means that we must develop the wisdom that will ensure the survival and cohesion of human society.

It assumes that we have the humility to understand that "a little folding of the hands to sleep", travel and service in the defence of the nation, might impoverish us by depriving us of our regular meals, but simultaneously make us "happy (as) the man that (finds) wisdom, and the man that (gets) understanding."

It would be dishonest of me not to assume that what I have cited from the Book of Proverbs will, at best, evoke literary interest, and, at worst, a minor theological controversy.

My own view is that the Proverbs raise important issues that bear on what our nation is trying to do to define the soul of the new South Africa.

I believe they communicate a challenging message about how we should respond to the situation immanent in our society concerning the adulation of personal wealth, and the attendant tendency to pay little practical regard to what each one of us might do to assist our neighbour to achieve the goal of a better life.

I must also accept that many among us might very well think that, like the proverbial King Canute, I am trying to wish away the waves of self-aggrandisement that might be characteristic of global human society.

To return to the Holy Bible, the Book of Genesis says, "In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return". (Genesis 3:19).

This Biblical text suggests that of critical importance to every South African is consideration of the material conditions of life, and therefore the attendant pursuit of personal wealth. After all, what interpretation should be attached to the statement that "In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread"!

Perhaps strangely, this could be said to coincide exactly with a fundamental proposition advanced by the founders of Marxism, expressed by Friederich Engels at the funeral of Karl Marx in the following words:

"Just as Darwin discovered the law of development or organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact, hitherto concealed by an overgrowth of ideology, that mankind must first of all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursue politics, science, art, religion, etc.; that therefore the production of the immediate material means, and consequently the degree of economic development attained by a given people or during a given epoch, form the foundation upon which the state institutions, the legal conceptions, art, and even the ideas on religion, of the people concerned have been evolved, and in the light of which they must, therefore, be explained, instead of vice versa, as had hitherto been the case."

Putting all this in more dramatic language, Marx had said: "Man must eat before he can think"! In this regard, Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the 1917 Russian Revolution, said: "Before we perceive, we breathe: we cannot exist without air, food and drink".

In the context of this Lecture, and what we will say later, we must state that Marx and Engels represented a particular point of view in the evolution of the discipline of philosophy, and were not asserting any love for the private accumulation of wealth. They were "materialists", who were militantly opposed to another philosophical tendency described as "idealism".

One of the most famous expressions of this "idealism" was stated by the French scholar and philosopher, Rene Descartes, who wrote, in Latin: "Cogito, ergo sum." ("I think, therefore I am", and, in the original French rendition, "Je pense, donc je suis".)

In the context of our own challenges, this "idealism" must serve to focus our attention on issues other than the tasks of the production and distribution of material wealth.

The philosophers in our ranks will have to engage the old debate of the relationship between mind and matter expressed in the statements, "Man must eat before he can think."!, and "I think, therefore I am."

I am certain that our country’s philosopher-theologians will continue to be interested in these discussions. After all, some of the earliest expression of "idealism", as a philosophical expression, is also contained in the Holy Bible.

In this regard, for instance, St John’s Gospel says: "In the beginning was the Word…"

I am certain that many in this auditorium have been asking themselves the question why I have referred so insistently on the Christian Holy Scriptures. Let me explain.

I believe that it is obvious to all of us that economic news and our economic challenges have come to occupy a central element of our daily diet of information.

Matters relating to such important issues as unemployment and job creation, disbursements from the national budget and expenditures on such items of education, health, welfare and transport, the economic growth rate, the balance between our imports and exports, the value of the Rand, skills development, broad based black economic empowerment, and the development of the "second economy", have all become part of our daily discourse.

Nevertheless the old intellectual debate between "materialists" and "idealists", whatever side we take in this regard, must tell us that human life is about more than the economy, and therefore material considerations.

I believe that as a nation we must make a special effort to understand and act on this, because of what I have said already, that personal pursuit of material gain, as the beginning and end of our life purpose, is already beginning to corrode our social and national cohesion.

Clearly, what this means is that when we talk of a better life for all, within the context of a shared sense of national unity and national reconciliation, we must look beyond the undoubtedly correct economic objectives our nation has set itself.

In this context, I must say that, most unfortunately, there is much trouble in the world. Much too regularly all of us are exposed, daily, to news of human-made conflict and death, and the disasters caused by poverty and natural disasters.

In reality I must confess that I have hardly ever heard of conflicts caused merely by low economic growth rates, currency movements and balance of payments problems, except to the extent that these produce a crisis in society.

Currently, none of us can avoid being extremely concerned about what is happening in the Middle East. What is happening in this region constitutes a tinder box that has the potential to set the whole world aflame. As a country and people, we surely know that the highly negative events in the Middle East are of direct and immediate concern to us.

It seems tragically clear that here we are confronted with an impending catastrophe that is almost out of control. Nothing that has been done and said during this period of high crisis that has produced the necessary agreement which would pull humanity back from the brink of an escalating conflict that can only feed on itself, leading to a further fanning of the terrible fires that already seem to be burning out of control.

In this regard we must pose the question whether, even in the medium term, we are not ineluctably progressing towards the situation when the centre cannot hold. I refer here not only to the serious problems in the Middle East but to the phenomenon of social conflict everywhere else in the world.

As Europe and the world sowed the seeds for the catastrophe later represented by the Second World War as in a Greek tragedy, the eminent Irish poet, William Butler Yeats, like other European thinkers, sounded alarm bells that nobody seemed to hear.

What he said survives today as outstanding poetry. Hopefully, the warning he sounded so many decades ago will be heard today, so that, by our acts of commission and omission, we do not condemn humanity to an age of extreme misery and death that could have been avoided.

In an appeal to the Muses, when all else seems to be failing, I take this opportunity humbly to summon from the grave an extraordinary human mind, to inspire the living to focus on the dangers ahead, and strive to ensure that, emanating from Jerusalem, the acre of the fountain of many faiths, no monstrous beast slouches out of Bethlehem to be born!

Thus do I appeal that all of us, the mighty and the lowly, hear the words of the poet not only with our ears, but also with our minds and our hearts, as he spoke of "The Second Coming"!

Turning and turning in the widening gyre

The falcon cannot hear the falconer;

Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;

Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,

The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere

The ceremony of innocence is drowned;

The best lack all conviction, while the worst

Are full of passionate intensity.

Surely some revelation is at hand;

Surely the Second Coming is at hand…

A shape with lion body and the head of a man,

A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun,

Is moving its slow thighs, while all about it

Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds…

…but now I know

That twenty centuries of stony sleep

were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,

And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,

Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?

I believe that for us to ensure that things do not fall apart, we must, in the first instance, never allow that the market should be the principal determinant of the nature of our society. We should firmly oppose the "market fundamentalism" which George Soros has denounced as the force that has led society to lose its anchor.

Instead, we must place at the centre of our daily activities the pursuit of the goals of social cohesion and human solidarity. We must, therefore, strive to integrate into the national consciousness the value system contained in the world outlook described as Ubuntu.

We must therefore constantly ask ourselves the question - what is it in our country that militates against social cohesion and human solidarity? I believe that none of us present here tonight would have any difficulty in answering this question.

I am therefore certain that we would all agree that to achieve the social cohesion and human solidarity we seek, we must vigorously confront the legacy of poverty, racism and sexism. At the same time, we must persist in our efforts to achieve national reconciliation.

Mere reliance on the market would never help us to achieve these outcomes. Indeed, if we were to rely on the market to produce these results, what would happen would be the exacerbation of the deep-seated problems of poverty, racism and sexism and a retreat from the realisation of the objective of national reconciliation.

Then indeed would we open the door to the demons that W.B. Yeats saw slouching towards Bethlehem to be born - emerging from the situation where the centre could not hold, in which mere anarchy would be loosed upon the world.

We must therefore say that the Biblical injunction is surely correct, that "Man cannot live by bread alone", and therefore that the mere pursuit of individual wealth can never satisfy the need immanent in all human beings to lead lives of happiness.

The conflicts we see today and have seen in many parts of the world should themselves communicate the daily message to us that the construction of cohesive human society concerns much more than the attainment of high economic growth rates, important as this objective is.

As we agonise over the unnecessary killings of innocent people and the destruction of much-needed infrastructure in Iraq and Palestine, in Lebanon and Israel, we have to ensure that we do not slide into an era when the falcon cannot hear the falconer, when things fall apart and the centre cannot hold.

Indeed, as we, South Africans, grapple with our own challenges, billions of the poor and the marginalised across the globe see the world ever evolving into a more sinister, cold and bitter place: this is the world that is gradually defined by increasing racism, xenophobia, ethnic animosity, religious conflicts, and the scourge of terrorism.

In this context, we have seen the rise of rightwing formations, racism, xenophobia and religious intolerance in France, Germany, Holland, Russia and many other European countries. This, in part, is a reaction to the relentless development of complex and varied forms that societies are ineluctably assuming due to the processes of globalisation.

It nevertheless also points to the absence of an integrative thrust - some reconciler - the institutionalised processes that would end the sense of alienation and marginalisation that leads to social conflict.

Indeed even in these developed societies, rising levels of poverty and insecurity have invariably conspired to fertilise the ground from which germinates ignorance about the ‘other’, and portend a bleak future for the prospect of what has been called a dialogue among civilisations.

In many European countries, immigration from the South is seen as an intrusive force that is bound to create ‘impurities’ in local cultures and in many instances, put a burden on available resources. In this regard, I am certain that all of us have been dismayed to see the way in which many in Europe have responded to the African economic migrants, who daily risk their lives to escape the grinding poverty in our own African countries.

Fortunately, in our case, I would say that our nation has begun to exhibit many critical common features deriving from a unified vision of a society based on non-racialism, non-sexism, shared prosperity, and peace and stability. Yet, at the same time, we still display strong traits of our divided past, with the debate about our future quite often coalescing along definite racial lines.

Despite this, and despite the advances we have made in our 12 years of freedom, we must also recognise the reality that we still have a long way to go before we can say we have eradicated the embedded impulses that militate against social cohesion, human solidarity and national reconciliation.

We should never allow ourselves the dangerous luxury of complacency, believing that we are immune to the conflicts that we see and have seen in so many parts of the world.

At the very same time as a ray of hope shone over our country and continent with the liberation of our country in 1994, and as you, Madiba, declared to the world that "the sun shall never set on so glorious a day", our fellow Africans, the Rwandese people, engulfed in a horrific genocide, lamented in unison that: ‘the angels have left us’.

In a Foreword to the book of the same name, Archbishop Tutu said: "When we come face to face with ghastly atrocities we are appalled and want to ask: ‘But what happened to these people that they have acted in this manner? What happened to their humanity that they should become inhumane?’

"…Yes we hang our heads in shame as we witness our extraordinary capacity to be vicious, cruel and almost devoid of humanness."

The imperative we face is that we should never permit that our country should witness the actions devoid of humanness of which Archbishop Tutu spoke, some of which were a feature of our long years of colonialism and apartheid.

Indeed, in a world that still suffers from the blight of intolerance, wars, antagonistic conflicts, racism, tribalism and marginalisation, national reconciliation and reconciliation among the nations, will remain a challenge that must occupy the entire human race continuously.

In our case we should say that we are fortunate that we had a Nelson Mandela who made bold to give us the task to attend to the "RDP of the soul", and lent his considerable weight to the achievement of the goal of national reconciliation and the achievement of the goal of a better life for all our people.

Ten years ago, Madiba travelled to the Republic of Congo to assist the people of the then Zaire, and now the Democratic Republic of Congo, to make peace among themselves. In this regard, he was conscious of the task we share as Africans to end the conflicts on our Continent, many of which are driven by the failure to effect the RDP of the African soul, to uphold the principles of Ubuntu, consciously to strive for social cohesion, human solidarity and national reconciliation.

Tomorrow the people of the DRC will go to the polls to elect their President and Members of the National Assembly. Everything points to the happy outcome that these democratic elections, the first in more than 40 years, will produce a result that truly reflects the will of the people of the DRC.

We must therefore say that we have arrived at a proud moment of hope for the DRC and Africa, and wish the sister people of the DRC unqualified success.

Yes, the Middle East is engulfed in flames that are devouring many people in this region, and cause enormous pain to ourselves as well. But this we can also say, difficult as it may be for some fully to accept, what the people of the DRC have done and will do, is also helping to define a world of hope, radically different from the universe of despair which seems to imprison the sister peoples of the Middle East.

I can think of no better birthday present for Madiba than tomorrow’s elections in the DRC, and no better tribute to the initiative he took 10 years ago to plead with the leaders of the Congolese people that together, as Africans, we must build a society based on the noble precept that - Motho ke motho ka motho yo mongoe: Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu!

Once again, happy birthday Madiba! Thank you."

First IBSA Summit Joint Declaration

Three years of steady collaborative efforts between India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) - three large and relatively advanced developing countries from three continents - culminated in realizing the first Summit on 13 September, 2006. The heads of state of the three countries cemented cooperation in a wide number of fields. This model of South-South cooperation may have its distinctive character, with lessons for the other forms of South-South interactions gaining ground. Reproduced below is the Joint Declaration from the first IBSA Summit.

"1. The Prime Minister of India, H.E. Manmohan Singh, the President of Brazil, H.E. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, and the President of South Africa, H.E. Thabo Mbeki, met in Brasília on 13 September 2006, for the 1st Summit Meeting of the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA).

2. Created in 2003, the IBSA Dialogue Forum plays an increasingly important role in the foreign policies of India, Brazil and South Africa. It has become instrumental for promoting ever closer coordination on global issues between three large multicultural and multiracial democracies of Asia, South America and Africa, and contributed to enhancing trilateral India-Brazil-South Africa cooperation in sectoral areas.

3. The importance of the IBSA Dialogue Forum goes beyond its positive impact on India-Brazil-South Africa relations. The Forum, consisting of three large developing countries, provides a framework that will give additional impetus to further contacts between Asian, South American and African developing countries, thus contributing to strengthening South-South cooperation.

4. The Heads of State and Government had already met under the IBSA format in previous opportunities, such as the meetings in 2003 and 2005, in New York. Ministerial meetings of the Trilateral Commission were held in New Delhi, in 2004, Cape Town, in 2005, and Rio de Janeiro, in March 2006. Trilateral working groups were created in the areas of Agriculture, Culture, Defense, Education, Energy, Health, Information Society, Trade and Investment, Social Issues, Science and Technology, Tourism and Transportation.

5. The Heads of State and Government of India, Brazil and South Africa expressed their deep appreciation with the consolidation of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. The 1st IBSA Summit, held today in Brasília, reaffirms that the three countries are committed to further strengthening this innovative initiative. The Heads of State and Government decided to give utmost priority to achieving further progress in the IBSA Dialogue Forum, building on the work of previous ministerial meetings of the Trilateral Commission and working group meetings.

6. The Heads of State and Government highlighted their shared vision that participation of their societies in this diplomatic initiative must play a key role in the future of IBSA. Therefore, they noted with deep satisfaction the Business and Academic Seminars held in Brasília on 12 September 2006. Prime Minister Singh, President Lula and President Mbeki urged civil societies in India, Brazil and South Africa to enhance mutual contact and cooperation. They instructed their Governments to support initiatives with that purpose. In this regard, they also welcomed the launching of the IBSA Website, as an additional and useful tool for further promoting the IBSA Dialogue Forum with stakeholders in India, Brazil and South Africa.

Political Consultation and Coordination on Global Issues

7. The Prime Minister of India, the President of Brazil and the President of South Africa reaffirmed their commitment to the promotion of peace, security and sustainable economic and social development in the world and in their respective regions. They reaffirmed their commitment to multilateralism and the pre-eminent role of the United Nations. India, Brazil and South Africa will continue to work together to strengthen the multilateral system, particularly through institutions such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, in order to further promote this goal. In that spirit, the Heads of State and Government of India, Brazil and South Africa discussed relevant global challenges before the international community, particularly the reform of the United Nations and of the United Nations Security Council, the successful conclusion of the Doha Round in the WTO, with the development dimension at the core of its outcome, environmental issues, in particular improved access to renewable energy technologies, and the effective implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, especially the rights of countries of origin over their own genetic resources as well as the protection of associated traditional knowledge.

8. The Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the pragmatic approach shared by India, Brazil and South Africa in the discussion of global issues. They also noted that common approaches by India, Brazil and South Africa strengthens the voice of developing countries and their capacity to contribute to global decisions that impact on their populations. The IBSA Forum contributes, therefore, to the goal of a fair and equitable world order.

9. In this regard, the Heads of State and Government reaffirmed their support for the joint proposals made by Brazil, China, India, Mexico, the Republic of Congo and South Africa in the Position Paper released on the occasion of the recent G-8 Summit meeting in Russia. This Position Paper addressed a number of challenges in the areas of energy, education and infectious diseases, among other topics. It reaffirmed the Outreach Partners’ commitment to work with G-8 member states to address matters of mutual concern. It highlighted the importance of mobilizing financial resources for development, through innovative mechanisms supplementing the commitments made at the United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development; emphasized the need to follow up on the work program on Africa launched at the G-8 Summit Meeting at Gleneagles, United Kingdom, in 2005; reiterated the significance of technological cooperation in energy research and development, called for improved access to renewable energy technologies, and underscored the pledge to work with developed and developing countries in sharing knowledge and expertise for development of such technologies; called upon the international community to strengthen cooperation towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, in particular MDG8 to develop global partnerships for development and further the realization of the Right to Development, and the Dakar Goals in the field of education; reiterated the need to reduce major trade barriers to facilitate access to new affordable quality vaccines, medicines, diagnostics and technology aimed at preventing and controlling infectious diseases, and underscored that the flexibilities contained in the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, recognized by the Doha Ministerial Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health, should be fully used to protect public health.

Reform of the United Nations and of the United Nations Security Council

10. The Heads of State and Government reiterated their support for the comprehensive reform of the United Nations and welcomed the creation of the Peacebuilding Commission and the Human Rights Council, as well as the progress made in the areas of development and management. They reaffirmed the need for a decision regarding the expansion of the Security Council, without which no reform of the United Nations will be complete. They reiterated their conviction that the Security Council must be expanded to include developing countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America in both its permanent and non-permanent categories, so as to reflect contemporary realities and make it more democratic, legitimate, representative and responsive. They reaffirmed their commitment to continue to jointly pursue a decision on Security Council expansion. This commitment will be pursued on an urgent basis.

International Terrorism

11. The Heads of State and Government unequivocally condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. They stressed that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any act of terrorism. They shared the view that the international community must further intensify efforts and cooperation to fight this scourge.

12. The Heads of State and Government recalled that the World Summit 2005 had called upon the UN member states to conclude a comprehensive convention on international terrorism during the 60th UN General Assembly. They called upon all member states to seriously work towards an expeditious finalization of the text for the convention.

13. The Presidents of Brazil and South Africa expressed their outrage at the barbaric terrorist attacks, carried out on 11 July 2006 in Mumbai and other parts of India. While expressing their condemnation for these acts in the strongest terms, they reiterated their deepest condolences to the victims and their families and expressed their solidarity with the Government and people of India. They called upon the international community to undertake all necessary measures to bring to justice perpetrators, collaborators and sponsors of these and other acts of terrorism, as well as those who incite the perpetrators to commit them. They reaffirmed their resolve to further intensify measures to combat the scourge of terrorism which constitutes a most serious threat to mankind and international peace and security.

Millennium Development Goals Action Against Hunger and Poverty Initiative

14. Progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals has been exceptionally slow and this can primarily be attributed to the fact that current international support for developing countries in their efforts are inadequate to meet their needs. Increasing the levels of Official Development Assistance, supporting the liberalization of trade, and the elimination, by the developed countries, of subsidies for products that are of interest to developing countries, continue to be essential goals in promoting development and fighting hunger and poverty. However, the magnitude of the challenge makes it necessary to seek additional ways for the poorest countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, in particular MDG1 to halve by 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. In this regard, the Heads of State and Government reiterated their strong commitment to the Action Against Hunger and Poverty Initiative and, in particular, the Millennium Declaration and the 2005 World Summit Outcome. They reaffirmed the importance of seeking innovative financial mechanisms in order to generate supplementary income flows that are consistent and reliable. The ongoing search for innovative new sources of financing for development is critical to overcoming the financing constraints that limit progress towards the international development objectives.

15. The Presidents of South Africa and Brazil and the Prime Minister of India noted with satisfaction that progress has been made with a pilot project based on small solidarity contributions made on the purchase of air tickets, the income from which will be channeled towards creating an International Drug Purchasing Facility to respond to the challenges of AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. In a meeting held in Brasília, on 6 and 7 July 2006, important advances were achieved in designing the project, which is expected to be formally launched on the occasion of the 61st United Nations General Assembly.

Human Rights

16. India, Brazil and South Africa, elected to the newly formed Human Rights Council, share common visions regarding the promotion and protection of human rights. This new Forum allows human rights issues to be dealt at an appropriately high level as is the case with international peace and security and development issues. This Council will benefit from coordinated contributions from India, Brazil and South Africa, with their common understanding regarding the Council’s agenda and structure. The three countries share a common vision to reaffirm the universality, indivisibility, interdependence and interrelatedness of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the realization and operationalization of the Right to Development and the special protection of rights of vulnerable groups.

17. India, Brazil and South Africa welcome the recent successful conclusion of negotiations, and the adoption of the draft Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, by the 8th Session of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Draft Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities, in New York, on 25 August 2006. The three countries look forward to the entry into force of this convention and will work toward the speedy signature thereof and the ratification thereto.

Sustainable Development

18. India, Brazil and South Africa share similar views regarding the importance of achieving sustainable development, particularly through the eradication of poverty, the promotion of economic growth and the protection of the environment. In this context, the IBSA countries wish to reiterate their common commitment in working together towards the goal of ensuring that sustainable development be achieved on a global scale, particularly in the developing world.

19. The Heads of State and Government reaffirmed that the principles in the Rio Declaration and the Johannesburg Plan of Action, particularly the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, should continue to guide multilateral negotiations on environmental issues. In this context, they underscored the importance of addressing the challenges of climate change in an urgent manner, under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. They called upon countries that have not yet done so to ratify the Protocol and encouraged all countries that have reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol to meet their commitments and to provide support to developing countries affected by climate change, including in the area of capacity building.

20. India, Brazil and South Africa stress that a critical step in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and sustainable development on a global scale is the adequate provision of financial resources and transfer of technologies at fair and affordable prices, particularly by the donor countries. In this regard, the IBSA countries urge the donor countries to meet their Official Development Assistance targets and to mobilize new and additional financial resources, as well as to foster the transfer of environmentally-sound technologies in order to fully implement the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), held in Johannesburg. In this sense, they stressed that international cooperation is a major tool for achieving the objectives set in Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Action as well as in specific fora, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

21. The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa reaffirmed the view that the primary focus on human development, the fight against poverty, and measures to promote a better quality of life should underpin and provide for greater guarantees for international peace and stability. They took stock of the global security situation concerning disarmament and non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). 22. The leaders reiterated their commitment to the goal of complete elimination of nuclear weapons and expressed concern over the lack of progress in realization of that goal. They emphasized that nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation are mutually reinforcing processes requiring continuous irreversible progress on both fronts, and reaffirmed, in this regard, that the objective of non-proliferation would be best served by systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in a comprehensive, universal, non-discriminatory and verifiable manner. They recalled that similar approaches have led to the establishment of international legally binding instruments that have banned chemical and biological weapons and are contributing towards the total elimination of such weapons and reaffirmed their commitment to make efforts in the relevant multilateral fora for an universal instrument to ban nuclear weapons and to achieve their complete elimination. They emphasized the necessity to start negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.

23. In this context, they also expressed concern over the lack of progress in the Conference on Disarmament (CD), the sole multilateral disarmament negotiating forum. They noted that several proposals had been made in the CD with regard to a program of work and reiterated their commitment to work together with all the member states to reach a consensus taking into account the concerns of all the member states. In this context, they reiterated that the Five Ambassadors proposal as revised in 2003 still remained a viable basis for reaching a consensus.

24. The Heads of State and Government underlined the need for reducing the role of nuclear weapons in strategic doctrines and expressed their support for effective international arrangements to assure non-nuclear-weapon States against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons.

25. The leaders discussed the threat posed by non-state actors or terrorists acquiring nuclear weapons or their related materials and technologies. They reaffirmed their commitment to contribute to multilateral efforts to counter such threats and promote co-operation in this regard. They welcomed in this regard the adoption of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. They expressed their conviction that the best way to prevent non-state actors or terrorists from acquiring nuclear weapons is the total elimination of such weapons.

Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

26. The Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the inalienable right of all States to the peaceful application of nuclear energy, consistent with their international legal obligations. They called for a diplomatic resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue within the context of the IAEA.

27. They took note with satisfaction of the positive continuing cooperation among their countries at the IAEA and other fora, with a view to ensuring the unimpeded growth and development of peaceful uses of atomic energy, through the supply of technology, equipment and material, under appropriate safeguards, and reaffirmed their will to intensify such cooperation.

28. The Presidents of South Africa and Brazil and the Prime Minister of India reiterated the importance of ensuring that any multilateral decisions related to the nuclear fuel cycle do not undermine the inalienable right of States to pursue nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in conformity with their international legal obligations.

29. The leaders emphasized the need to ensure the supply of safe, sustainable and non-polluting sources of energy to meet the rising global demand for energy, particularly in developing countries. In this context they agreed that nuclear energy could play an important role. They agreed to explore approaches to cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under appropriate IAEA safeguards. They further agreed that international civilian nuclear cooperation, under appropriate IAEA safeguards, amongst countries committed to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation objectives could be enhanced through acceptable forward-looking approaches, consistent with their respective national and international obligations.


30. India, Brazil and South Africa welcomed the adoption on August 11th of UNSC Resolution 1701, by unanimous vote. They expressed their hope that the approval of Resolution 1701 by the Lebanese Council of Ministers on August 12th and by the Israeli Cabinet on August 13th may open a promising gateway to the negotiation of a lasting, permanent and sustainable solution to the conflict. Nonetheless, they affirmed their profound consternation and deepening concern about the impact produced by the escalation of violence in the Middle East. They condemned, in the most vehement terms, the excessive and sometimes indiscriminate use of force that resulted in the death of a large number of civilians, including women and children, and in the destruction of infrastructure in Lebanon, in flagrant violation of the principles of International Humanitarian Law. They also expressed their willingness to work in partnership with the international community to provide immediate humanitarian relief to the people of Lebanon and to undertake joint efforts in order to support the reconstruction of the Lebanese infrastructure. They called for the full implementation of all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions. They stressed that the international community must act decisively to prevent the renewal of hostilities and underlined the need for a quick resumption of dialogue for resolution of all outstanding issues. They underlined that enduring regional security and stability will only be achieved through a just, lasting and comprehensive settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict in all its dimensions, as early as possible.


31.The Heads of State and Government expressed serious concern about the spiral of violence which is taking place in the Palestinian Occupied Territories and reaffirmed the hope that the Palestinian National Authority and the Israeli government may hold direct talks with a view to resuming, as soon as possible, the peace negotiations as laid down by the Road Map for Peace. They reafffirmed that all efforts should be made towards the goal of an immediate end to the current violence, a resumption of security cooperation and a political engagement both among Palestinians and with Israel. They urged both parties to abstain from taking any action or measure that might put in jeopardy the peace process in the region aimed at achieving a two-state solution under the Road Map, providing for the establishment of a viable, sovereign, and independent State of Palestine, living side by side in peaceful co-existence with the State of Israel. The participants affirmed that both parties must have as a main objective the protection of civil society and the need to refrain, in any situation, from resorting to collective punishment and attacks against civilians. Deeply concerned with the increasing deterioration of the living conditions of the Palestinian population, they stressed, in particular, the importance of an immediate expansion of the temporary international mechanism for donors established under the direction of the Quartet, the Israeli compliance with the Agreement on Movement and Access of November 2005, and action on other steps to ease the humanitarian plight of the people of Gaza and the West Bank. In this context, the participants pledged their readiness to examine the launching of technical cooperation projects in Gaza and the West Bank, possibly with the use of resources from the IBSA Facility Fund.

International Monetary Fund

32. The Heads of State and Government expressed the view that the legitimacy of the IMF depends on a fundamental reform of quotas and voice that is more representative of developing countries. The reform must effectively reduce the serious imbalance between the ample majority of voting power now held by advanced economies and the unsatisfactory participation of developing countries.

Doha Round

33. The Heads of State and Government deeply regretted that the WTO’s Doha Development Agenda negotiations have been suspended. This is a serious setback to the development promises of the Round and a disappointment for developing countries. Failure to conclude the negotiations in accordance with the mandate will deprive developing countries of fair and equitable conditions for fully realizing their Right to Development and their comparative advantages across agriculture, industry, and services.

34. Agricultural trade and production continue to be hindered, particularly on products of export interest to developing countries, by all sorts of barriers and distortions, through a combination of non-tariff measures and high tariffs, domestic support, and export subsidies that export poverty and hunger. Such distortions should be expeditiously eliminated and agriculture should be fully incorporated into the rules of the multilateral trading system.

35. The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa called upon countries that have not yet done so to substantially and effectively reduce their expenditures on agricultural subsidies. It is essential that the main subsidizers improve their proposals on domestic support and their current offers on market access to provide an adequate and equitable basis for achieving the results that our countries have all agreed to strive for.

36. As members of the G-20, a grouping whose identity is deeply linked to the development dimension of the Doha Round, India, Brazil and South Africa are united around the goal of putting an end to trade distorting policies. The IBSA countries, which are also Members of the NAMA-11, are fully committed to strengthening the multilateral trading system in a more development-friendly fashion, aimed at promoting economic growth and employment and reduction of poverty.

37. India, Brazil and South Africa recalled the outcome of the G-20 High-Level Meeting held in Rio de Janeiro on 9 and 10 September 2006, and reiterated that they shall spare no effort to resume the negotiations sooner rather than later. On the road ahead, the progress achieved so far must be fully preserved. We cannot retreat. The level of ambition of the Doha Development Agenda must be maintained. The needs and aspirations of developing countries will only be met with an ambitious outcome to the Round that will reduce protectionism and end distortions.

Global System of Trade Preferences Among Developing Countries (GSTP)

38. The Heads of State and Government reiterated their commitment towards a fairer global trading system, to the benefit of developing countries. In this respect, and taking into account the spirit of the Brasilia Declaration, they welcomed the progress achieved so far in the São Paulo Round of the Global System of Trade Preferences among Developing Countries (GSTP). The GSTP has a crucial role to play in the new geography of trade, in which South-South trade is recognised as an important dynamic force. The GSTP can contribute decisively to foster new trade flows, supplement the current regional arrangements, and promote the diversification of export products and markets. The GSTP can be particularly effective in involving LDCs in the global trading system, providing them preferential access and devising other possible measures in their support. Those countries are encouraged to join the negotiations, in order to benefit to the largest extent possible from preferential access to other developing country markets.

39. The system has been strengthened by the recent application for accession by eight new participants and by the accession of Mercosur, which is about to finalize the corresponding ratification procedures and become a player in the São Paulo Round. The IBSA Forum gives its full support to the São Paulo Round, stressing the importance of the GSTP as an important tool to expand South-South trade flows, making world trade more inclusive and equitable.

Intellectual Property

40. The Heads of State and Government underscored the importance of incorporating a development dimension in international discussions concerning intellectual property, as a means to make a meaningful contribution to the economic and social aspects within developing countries, and to preserve policy spaces necessary for ensuring access to knowledge, promoting public goals in the fields of health and culture, and a sustainable environment. In this context, they welcomed the continued discussions on the establishment of a "Development Agenda in the World Intellectual Property Organization" and reaffirmed the importance of the continuation of these discussions to ensure the effective incorporation of the development dimension in all its bodies.

41. They also reaffirmed the need to reach a solution for the problem raised by the granting of intellectual property rights on biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge, without due compliance with relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In this regard, they highlighted with great appreciation the presentation in the WTO of the proposal co-sponsored, among others, by the three IBSA countries to amend the TRIPS Agreement by introducing a mandatory requirement for the disclosure of origin of biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge used in inventions for which applications for intellectual property rights are filed.

42. The Heads of State and Government noted with deep concern the increase in cases of misappropriation of biological resources through the granting of erroneous patents or the registration of irregular trademarks and, therefore, agreed on establishing an informal trilateral consultative mechanism for the exchange of information on these issues.

India-Brazil-South Africa Trilateral Cooperation

43. The Prime Minister of India, the President of Brazil and the President of South Africa reviewed initiatives for trilateral sectoral cooperation. South-South Cooperation is a key element for promoting economic and social development. In this context, the IBSA Dialogue Forum provides an invaluable framework to further trilateral cooperation among three of the most important developing countries in the world. The Heads of State and Government expressed deep satisfaction with new, concrete results achieved during the 1st IBSA Summit in the areas of Energy, Agriculture, Transportation, Trade, Science and Technology and Information Society. They decided to further explore additional opportunities for trilateral cooperation. In this regard, they took note and supported the launching of a Working Group on Public Administration.


44. The Heads of State and Government expressed their deep satisfaction with the signing, during the 1st IBSA Summit, of the IBSA Action Plan on Trade Facilitation for Standards, Technical Regulations and Conformity Assessment. They noted that the Action Plan, which is one element of broader goals on business facilitation, is an important element to create a concrete basis for the increase of trade flows between IBSA countries. They also reiterated the commitment to enhancing trilateral trade through the envisaged conclusion of bilateral customs cooperation agreements.

45. The Heads of State and Government expressed their full support and commitment to the expeditious establishment of the Working Group to focus on the modalities for the envisaged India-Mercosur-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Agreement (T-FTA). They expressed the view that the T-FTA will have a significant impact with regard to the consolidation of the IBSA Dialogue Forum as an effective mechanism to promote closer relations between India, Brazil and South Africa, as well as between their respective regions. They also registered that a growing cooperation between India, Mercosur and SACU in the trade field can strongly contribute to a new scenario in international trade, suitable to their respective development goals.

46. They reaffirmed, in parallel, the importance of ongoing India-Mercosur and Mercosur-SACU negotiations with a view to broadening and deepening existing Tariff Preference Agreements. They noted, as well, the forthcoming India-SACU tariff preference negotiations, and underscored that all these efforts are an important step towards the envisaged India-Mercosur-SACU Free Trade Agreement.

47. The three countries expressed their satisfaction with the fact that important business delegations from India, South Africa and Brazil took part in the 1st IBSA Summit Meeting. Leading businessmen from the three countries attended the "India, Brazil and South Africa Business Summit", organized by the Brazilian Confederation of National Industry (CNI) with the support of ASSOCHAM, CII and FICCI from India, and BUSA, from South Africa. Furthermore, the Heads of State and Government held a meeting with business delegations from the three countries and had a fruitful exchange of views on perspectives and challenges for the expansion of trade among the IBSA countries.


48. The Heads of State and Government addressed the issue of the dual and linked challenge of meeting energy needs and achieving sustained economic growth and sustainable development. They noted their satisfaction with the progress of the trilateral dialogue on energy cooperation, and expressed deep appreciation for the signature, during the present Summit, of a Memorandum of Understanding on Biofuels, with the decision to create a Trilateral Task Force on Biofuels to work on concrete areas of common interest.

49. The Heads of State of India and South Africa praised the initiative launched by Brazil – the Biofuels Forum – to articulate and consolidate common objectives including the transformation of bioethanol into an energy commodity. They agreed on the need to work together to enhance and promote the use of ethanol and biodiesel as a vehicular fuel so as to increase energy security, while also bringing with it environmental, social and economic benefits.


50. The Heads of State and Government reiterated the relevance of agriculture to the three countries and welcomed the meeting of IBSA Ministers of Agriculture on the margins of the FAO Conference in November 2005, in Rome, as well as the meeting of Senior Officials in January 2006, in New Delhi. They agreed that the Memorandum of Understanding on Trilateral Cooperation in Agriculture and Allied Fields, signed during the IBSA Summit, will be an important instrument to promote socio-economic development and South-South cooperation.


51. The Heads of State and Government welcomed the conclusion of the IBSA Maritime Transportation Agreement, which marks a new and tangible phase in the cooperation between relevant authorities and enterprises. They further noted with satisfaction that this agreement will create the framework for improving logistics, enhancing maritime skills base and fostering trilateral trade flows. They expressed the need for the relevant authorities in their respective countries to further identify other specific maritime related matters that can support major trade initiatives.

52. They also emphasized the importance of implementing the Memorandum of Understanding on Civil Aviation as soon as possible, through the establishment of regular air services linking India, Brazil and South Africa. They encouraged airlines from the three countries to continue working towards this goal. In addition, they shared the belief that further discussions regarding cooperation arrangements in other aviation-related areas would be of great advantage for their countries.

53. In this connection, they also emphasized the need for the authorities responsible for the transport sector to develop the Action Plan, with clear deliverables and timeframes, as a way of accelerating implementation of the commitments enshrined in the signed Agreements.

Science and Technology

54. The Heads of State and Government recalled the role of Science and Technology in shaping the future of societies in the three countries, particularly by providing tools for reducing poverty, promoting social inclusion and contributing to the attainment of the UN Millennium Development Goals. They noted with satisfaction the opportunities for scientific and technological cooperation between research and development institutions in the three countries, in areas such as health, biotechnology, nanosciences and oceanography. They noted with deep satisfaction as well the progress that has been made with the implementation of the 2005-2007 Work Program approved with the Rio Declaration on Science and Technology, signed during the 2nd Ministerial Meeting of Ministers of Science and Technology, in June 2005. They reaffirmed their strong support and commitment to the goal of continuing to cooperate in these and other areas of common interest.

55. The Heads of State and Government also committed themselves to further enhancing trilateral cooperation in the field of HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis and to explore the possibilities of concluding a trilateral instrument for collaboration among all three countries for research and development of AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis diagnostic tools, drugs and vaccines. This would pool the significant capabilities that exist in the IBSA countries. HEALTH

56. The Heads of State and Government welcomed the meeting of the Working Group on Health held in Brazil from 6-10 February 2006. At this meeting, the Working Group developed an IBSA Implementation Plan on Health focusing on public health laboratories, health surveillance, traditional medicine and sanitary control regulation. It also identified modalities to exchange experiences and explore solutions to meet health needs. In this regard, it was agreed that the Health Ministers will meet soon to adopt the Plan and to work together on global issues for achieving sustainable socio-economic development to end poverty, hunger and underdevelopment.

Information Society

57. The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa underscored the importance of working together towards a people-centered, inclusive and development-oriented Information Society and renewed their support for the results of the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva and Tunis, in 2003 and 2005, respectively. They agreed to continue to coordinate positions for the WSIS folllow-up mechanisms, as well as for the other fora and organizations related to the Information Society and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).

58. The Heads of State and Government emphasized the need to promote and enhance close trilateral cooperation and capacity building between the three countries in the areas of digital inclusion, ICTs for development, as well as E-government and governance as a means of reducing the digital divide in their societies. They noted with satisfaction the progress made towards achieving this objective, particularly the signing of an IBSA Framework of Cooperation on Information Society, which provides the basis for future trilateral work aiming at reducing the digital divide in their societies.

Social Development

59. The Heads of State and Government welcomed the creation of the working group on Social Development. At its first meeting held in Rio de Janeiro, from 12-14 June 2006, the working group focused on the main challenges India, Brazil and South Africa will have to overcome in this area. It also identified new ways to exchange experiences and explore solutions to meet their social development needs. The IBSA Facility Fund for Alleviation of Poverty and Hunger will work in close relation with the working group on Social Development in order to identify new opportunities for South-South cooperation.

IBSA Facility Fund for Alleviation of Poverty and Hunger

60. The Heads of State and Government emphasized the fact that the IBSA Facility Fund constitutes a pioneer and unique initiative of South-South cooperation. They took note of the accomplishments regarding the Fund and welcomed the renewed commitments of its Board of Directors to the achievement of its goals. They were also very supportive of the role of the UNDP South-South Cooperation Unit. They restated that the Fund is intended to make available best practices developed in IBSA countries to fight poverty and hunger, particularly to provide an IBSA contribution to South-South cooperation modalities.

61. In this regard, they expressed their satisfaction with the initiatives in Guinea-Bissau and Haiti and encouraged further work towards the identification of new projects, particularly the ones envisaged for Laos and Palestine. They underscored that the successful implementation of these initial projects, together with increased resources mobilization, are essential elements for the consolidation of the IBSA Trust Fund as a viable and efficient mechanism for South-South cooperation.

62. The Prime Minister of India and the Presidents of Brazil and South Africa underscored their countries’ commitment to allocate at least US$ 1 million a year to the IBSA Facility Fund, a pledge highlighted in the Rio de Janeiro Ministerial Communiqué, released on 30 March 2006, on the occasion of the 3rd Meeting of the Trilateral Commission of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. India, Brazil and South Africa will also engage in the search for other financing sources.

63. IBSA members encourage developing countries, particularly the Least Developing Countries, to submit projects to the IBSA Fund. India, Brazil and South Africa will continue to reach out to potential beneficiaries of the Fund.

64. The Heads of State and Government expressed their satisfaction with the decision by the Minister of State for External Affairs of India, H.E. Anand Sharma, the Minister of External Relations of Brazil, H.E. Celso Amorim, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Africa, H.E. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, at the 3rd Meeting of the Trilateral Commission of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, held in Rio de Janeiro on 30 March 2006, to convene the 4th Meeting of the Trilateral Commission, to be hosted by India, in the first quarter of 2007. In addition, they considered the possibility of holding the 2nd Summit of the IBSA Dialogue Forum, in South Africa, on a date to be set through diplomatic channels."

South Centre News

Executive Director

The Executive Director of the South Centre, Prof. Yash Tandon, held meetings in New York from 17-20 September, 2006 with representatives from the Ford Foundation. The meetings covered various funding proposals for the South Centre.

Trade for Development

The programme staff participated in:

• Two meetings organized by G-33 during this period to exchange information on High Level meetings held on 9 September (G-20, in Rio de Janeiro) and 20-22 September (Cairns Group, Cairns) and to strategize on matters of interest to the group in the context of the WTO agriculture negotiations.

• The Ad-Hoc Expert Group Meeting on "Economic Partnership Agreements and how African Countries can adjust," held in Cairo, Egypt on 18-19 September 2006. The meeting discussed potential adjustment costs associated EPA negotiations with the European Union for policy makers of the African countries. The experience of Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia, countries that has already signed agreements with the EU was discussed. The South Centre presentation elaborated also on the experience of Mexico in the context of the North America Free Trade Agreement.

• A Working Lunch on the 26 September, taking advantage of the presence of many NGOs in the WTO Symposium, to exchange information on the state of play of the WTO negotiations and other developments in the trade field in the next year/two years. TDP Staff presented several scenarios regarding the Doha round and participants shared their views information on their respective work and research programs. Several developing country negotiators also attended this meeting.

• A meeting with Mrs. Cristina Hernandez, from UNDP on 15 September. Mrs. Hernandez has recently been posted in the UNDP Office for West Africa in Sénégal. This meeting allowed an information exchange on issues of interest to both organizations and exploring possible collaborative efforts on areas related to the WTO Agriculture negotiations.

Global Governance for Development

• The programme published a South Centre Research Paper No. 7 titled "Re-Inventing UNCTAD". The paper stresses UNCTAD’s continuing relevance and the importance of revitalizing UNCTAD’s work so as to bring it once again to the forefront of multilateral efforts to deal with the development challenges that the global community, in particular developing countries, face today. An advance copy of this paper was submitted by Dr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Chairman of the South Centre Board and former Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Panel of Eminent Persons on Enhancing UNCTAD’s Impact earlier this year.

The programme staff participated in:

• A conference on "Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa Through WTO Dispute Settlement". Organized by ICTSD, tralac, and Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, the purpose of the conference was to reflect on Africa’s engagement in the WTO dispute settlement system and to identify possible strategies that could facilitate an effective engagement in the system when the need arises (13 September 2006).

• A WTO Appellate Body Research Series where Prof. Gabrielle Marceau (WTO Secretariat) spoke on the topic "What norms make up the WTO legal system and whether there is a hierarchy among them?" The event was pertinent to the South Centre’s ongoing work on WTO dispute settlement and the legal aspects of the WTO negotiations (19 September 2006).

• A presentation titled "The Role of the South in Global Economic Policymaking", to students of the French Ecole national d’administration (ENA) during their study tour of Geneva, at the Graduate Institute for International Studies, Geneva (25 September 2006).

• A panel event entitled "Decision-making in the WTO: medieval or up to date?" organized by the World Trade Institute and the Graduate Institute for International Studies during the WTO Public Forum (26 September 2006).

• The public hearing of a WTO dispute settlement panel meeting with parties and scientific experts in the disputes "United States – Continued Suspension of Obligations in the EC – Hormones Dispute (WTDS/320)" and "Canada – Continued Suspension of Obligations in the EC – Hormones Dispute (WTDS/321)". This was the first time in the history of the GATT/WTO that a dispute settlement panel meeting with scientific experts has been opened to the public (27 September 2006).

The Innovation and Access to Knowledge Programme:

The programme staff:

• Launched Research Paper No. 8: "IP Rights under Investment Agreements: The TRIPS-Plus Implications for Enforcement and Protection of Public Interest." The paper was written by the Ermias Biadgleng, who is Programme Officer under the Innovation and Access to Knowledge Programme of the Centre. The paper examines the status of intellectual property rights under investment agreements and the implications of the provisions of investment agreements on the promotion of the public interest, the enforcement of intellectual property rights and dispute settlement; 

• Released a pre-publication of its Research Paper: "The Proposed WIPO Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations: Are New Rights Warranted and Will Developing Countries Benefit?" This research paper discusses the main elements of the proposed World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaty on the protection of broadcasting organisations in the context of the evolving concept of broadcasting, analyses whether the treaty is likely on aggregate to bring more benefits than costs for developing countries;

• Prepared informal background note on policy options and strategic questions for developing countries at the 2006 WIPO Assemblies. The note analyses and discusses issues related to the WIPO Development Agenda, the new Work Plan for the Standing Committee on the Law of Patents (SCP); the Proposed Treaty on the Protection of Broadcasting Organisations, the Work of the IGC, enforcement and the work of the Advisory Committee on Enforcement; and other Issues, namely, Programme and Budget Related Issues, Constitutional Reform, PCT Issues, Protection of Audiovisual Performances and the Revised Trademark Law Treaty; and

• Jointly organised a Preparatory Meeting with Third World Network for the developing country delegates from Geneva based missions and capital offices on issues related to the WIPO Assemblies, on 24 September 2006 in Geneva. The preparatory meeting was attended by more than thirty delegates and officials form capitals and representatives of NGOs based in Geneva and developing countries. The meeting concluded with the general understanding on the framework and strategy for the WIPO Assemblies.

Editorial - NAM: Strengthening South-South Supports

Next to the United Nations General Assembly, the Non-Aligned Movement brings together the largest number of countries under its umbrella. With two new entrants, the strength of this Movement goes up to 118 countries - all from the South where economic development has still to fulfil the basic needs of billions of people. NAM is the largest inter-governmental grouping of States that meets every three years. The fact that the mantel of leadership comes back to Cuba after it last chaired the Movement in 1979 (at the Sixth Conference) is a tribute both to Cuba and its indefatigable leader, Fidel Castro.

What has this Movement really achieved in the 45 years of its existence, since the first Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961under the leadership of President Tito of Yugoslavia? For all its failings, one thing does stand out. And that is the unity of the South. In the words of the President Mbeki of South Africa, "Ours is therefore also more than a mere geographical bonding of countries of the South, but a commitment to respect the history of our Movement, remaining loyal to the causes that inspired us from the very beginning of our common journey." In a sense that journey began in Bandung, Indonesia a few years before the birth of NAM.

"Bandung, more that anything else, was an initiative on the part of the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist movement to ensure that the peoples of the South take their destiny into their own hands and give notice that colonialism, apartheid and foreign domination would no longer be tolerated. I am confident that this resolve has not changed! In fact, it is now more than ever necessary to be vigilant and protect the legacy of our past achievements in ridding ourselves of the legacy of foreign domination and third-world status." President Mbeki’s words during the Havana Summit in fact mirror the feelings of billions of people across the globe.

The Havana NAM Summit outcome final document runs into more than 75 pages. It contains an agreement on not just the purposes, principles and the role of NAM but a number of detailed plans of action in the international, regional and national spheres. On a number of topical issues such as United Nations reforms, the status of international law with respect to waging war on a sovereign nation, terrorism, nuclear disarmament, peace in the Middle East, and multilateralism – the Movement has a clearly spelt out position. The unity and solidarity among the members of the South is only relevant if NAM continues to play an active, important and constructive role in international relations, so that a more just and equal world order may be achieved.

It is perhaps the failure of the current globalization process – which puts capital on a high pedestal but dehumanizes labour and has marginalized most peoples and countries – that has re-enforced the need for the countries of the South to come together in collaborative initiatives. A lot is now happening compared to a decade ago, but the potential is just enormous. Leaders of the South have agreed to set up a number of South-South institutions that will accelerate the progress of development in the developing world. They want to make poverty and hunger history. It is within this context that President Chavez of Venezuela has suggested that President Fidel Castro should chair the Second South Commission - to present a strategy to reactivate South-South cooperation and promote the integration of the South. The first South Commission, which brought together leading intellectuals from the South, was chaired by President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and Dr. Man Mohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India, was then the Secretary-General of the South Commission – which came out with the seminal report: The Challenge to the South.

Among the specific projects that Southern leaders proposed to take up were a bank of the South, a university system of the South and a World TV network of the South. While India proposed to coordinate a Working Group on Energy Security, Venezuela proposed Pterosaur, a petroleum-energy pact for the South. The South has the largest reserves of petroleum and gas and gold and precious minerals, besides maintaining biodiversity of immense value to humanity. With so much wealth, it is a matter of shame that so much poverty should still exist.

But the unity and bonding of the South must be interpreted as a positive force. As the outgoing Chair of NAM, Malaysia’s Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi observed, "in continuing our struggle, we should not be misunderstood as being against any country or group of countries. NAM is only against injustice, inequity, oppression, selectivity or double standards and all the other negative, exploitative or coercive elements of inter-state relations that take advantage of weak and vulnerable states." A new dynamic of South-South cooperation may well change the face of this planet, taking on the challenge of under-development with a collective force that a few in the developing world have already shown within their national boundaries.

South Bulletin no.132

Attached please find the latest issue of the South Bulletin no. 132 in pdf
and word formats. Focus on the 14th NAM Conference in Havana.

Best regards,

See attached file: bulletin132.pdf
See attached file: South Bulletin 132Word.doc

Someshwar Singh

Senior Editor
South Centre
Ch. du Champ d'Anier 17
1211 Geneva 19


web site:

Latest issue of the South Bulletin no. 132

Attachment: bulletin132.pdf (1.59 MB) SouthBulletin132Word.doc (0.27 MB)

Friday, September 29, 2006